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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 46% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Zelzer et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 148 patients in Austria Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.075) Zelzer et al., Nutrients, June 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Zelzer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129
Jun 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments.
Retrospective 148 patients in Austria, showing no statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels and metabolites for mortality or respiratory support.
This is the 76th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 46.4% lower, RR 0.54, p = 0.08, high D levels 24 of 121 (19.8%), low D levels 10 of 27 (37.0%), NNT 5.8, >30nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Zelzer et al., 22 Jun 2021, retrospective, Austria, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Sieglinde Zelzer, Florian Prüller, Pero Curcic, Zdenka Sloup, Magdalena Holter, Markus Herrmann, Harald Mangge
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129
Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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{ 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13072129', 'ISSN': ['2072-6643'], 'URL': '', 'abstract': '<jats:p>(1) Background: Vitamin D, a well-established regulator of calcium and phosphate ' 'metabolism, also has immune-modulatory functions. An uncontrolled immune response and ' 'cytokine storm are tightly linked to fatal courses of COVID-19. The present retrospective ' 'study aimed to inves-tigate vitamin D status markers and vitamin D degradation products in a ' 'mixed cohort of 148 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with various clinical courses of COVID-19. ' '(2) Methods: The serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, 24,25(OH)2D3, and 25,26(OH)2D3 ' 'were determined by a validated liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method in ' 'leftover serum samples from 148 COVID-19 patients that were admitted to the University ' 'Hospital of the Medical Uni-versity of Graz between April and November 2020. Anthropometric ' 'and clinical data, as well as outcomes were obtained from the laboratory and hospital ' 'information systems. (3) Results: From the 148 patients, 34 (23%) died within 30 days after ' 'admission. The frequency of fatal outcomes did not differ between males and females. ' 'Non-survivors were significantly older than survivors, had higher peak concentrations of IL-6 ' 'and CRP, and required mechanical ventilation more frequently. The serum concentrations of all ' 'vitamin D metabolites and the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) did not differ significantly ' 'between survivors and non-survivors. Additionally, the need for res-piratory support was ' 'unrelated to the serum concentrations of 25(OH)D vitamin D and the two vitamin D catabolites, ' 'as well as the VMR. (4) Conclusion: The present results do not support a relevant role of ' 'vitamin D for the course and outcome of COVID-19.</jats:p>', 'alternative-id': ['nu13072129'], 'author': [ { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Zelzer', 'given': 'Sieglinde', 'sequence': 'first'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Prüller', 'given': 'Florian', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Curcic', 'given': 'Pero', 'sequence': 'additional'}, {'affiliation': [], 'family': 'Sloup', 'given': 'Zdenka', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Holter', 'given': 'Magdalena', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Herrmann', 'given': 'Markus', 'sequence': 'additional'}, { 'ORCID': '', 'affiliation': [], 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'family': 'Mangge', 'given': 'Harald', 'sequence': 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