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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 51% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Livingston et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 104 patients in the United Kingdom Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.019) Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Pr.., Apr 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Detectable respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation

Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166
Apr 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 118 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.
This is the 60th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of case, 50.9% lower, RR 0.49, p = 0.02, high D levels 16 of 52 (30.8%), low D levels 31 of 52 (59.6%), NNT 3.5, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >34.4nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Livingston et al., 2 Apr 2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation
Mark Livingston, Aiden Plant, Simon Dunmore, Andrew Hartland, Stephen Jones, Ian Laing, Sudarshan Ramachandran
International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166
Background: Accumulating evidence links COVID-19 incidence and outcomes with vitamin D status. We investigated if an interaction existed between vitamin D levels and social deprivation in those with and without COVID-19 infection. Methods : Upper or lower respiratory tract samples from 104 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in accordance with Public Health England criteria (January-May 2020) using RT-PCR. The latest serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25-OHD) levels, quantified by LC-MS/MS, was obtained for each patient (September 2019-April 2020). Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) was generated for each patient. Univariate and logistic regression analyses examined associations between age, gender, 25-OHD, IMD score and SARS-CoV-2 result in the total cohort and subgroups. Results: In the total cohort, a positive SARS-CoV-2 test was significantly associated with lower 25-OHD levels and higher IMD. A positive test was associated with higher IMD in the male subgroup and with lower 25-OHD levels in those aged >72 years. Low 25-OHD and IMD quintile 5 were separately associated with positive COVID-19 outcome in the cohort. Patients in IMD quintile 5 with vitamin D levels ≤ 34.4 nmol/L were most likely to have a positive COVID-19 outcome, even more so if aged >72 years (OR: 19.07, 95%CI: 1.71-212.25; P = .016). Conclusions: In this cohort, combined low vitamin D levels and higher social deprivation were most associated with COVID-19 infection. In older age, this combination was even more significant. Our data support the recommendations for normalising vitamin D levels in those with deficient / insufficient levels and in groups at high risk for deficiency.
ACK N OWLED G EM ENTS The authors acknowledge Mr Yusuf Varachia for help with extracting the data from the laboratory database. A preprint of this publication in the Authorea repository: https:// w w w.autho 31229 6/ar tic les/45494 0-detec table -respi rator y-sars-cov-2-rna-is-assoc iated -with-low-vitam in-d-level s-and-high-socia l-depri vatio n?commi t=0a10e c6dd5 905a5 d7177 61c9e a66e9 e366c a1f7d CO N FLI C T O F I NTE R E S T None to declare. DATA AVA I L A B I L I T Y S TAT E M E N T We used patient level data which was fully anonymised prior to analysis. Any requests for access to this data should be made to the corresponding author, Prof Mark Livingston. O RCI D Mark Livingston R E FE R E N C E S
Aranow, Vitamin D and the immune system, J Investig Med
Crowe, Jolly, Macarthur, Trends in the incidence of testing for vitamin D deficiency in primary care in the UK: a retrospective analysis of The Health Improvement Network (THIN), 2005-2015, BMJ Open
Grant, Lahore, Mcdonnell, Evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce risk of influenza and COVID-19 infections and deaths, Nutrients
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