Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective Approach
Yulia et al.
, Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective..
, Pathophysiology, doi:10.3390/pathophysiology29010009
Retrospective hospitalized patients in Indonesia, showing lower mortality and shorter hospitalization with favipiravir.
risk of death, 85.3% lower, OR 0.15, p = 0.05, inverted to make OR<1 favor treatment, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Yulia et al., 7 Mar 2022, retrospective, Indonesia, peer-reviewed, median age 46.0, 10 authors, study period July 2020 - December 2020.
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Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in
COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven Retrospective Approach
Rika Yulia 1 , Putri Ayu Irma Ikasanti 1 , Fauna Herawati 1,2, * , Ruddy Hartono 3 , Puri Safitri Hanum 4 , Lestiono 5 ,
Dewi Ramdani 6 , Abdul Kadir Jaelani 7 , Kevin Kantono 8 and Heru Wijono 4
Citation: Yulia, R.; Ikasanti, P.A.I.;
Herawati, F.; Hartono, R.; Hanum,
P.S.; Lestiono; Ramdani, D.; Jaelani,
A.K.; Kantono, K.; Wijono, H.
Evaluation of Antibacterial and
Antiviral Drug Effectiveness in
COVID-19 Therapy: A Data-Driven
Pathophysiology 2022, 29, 92–105.
Academic Editor: Jonathan
Received: 9 December 2021
Accepted: 3 March 2022
Published: 7 March 2022
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Department of Clinical and Community Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Surabaya,
Surabaya 60293, Indonesia; email@example.com (R.Y.); firstname.lastname@example.org (P.A.I.I.)
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Indonesia,
Depok 16424, Indonesia
Department of Pharmacy, Rumah Sakit Bhayangkara, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia; email@example.com
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Surabaya, Surabaya 60293, Indonesia;
firstname.lastname@example.org (P.S.H.); email@example.com (H.W.)
Department of Pharmacy, Rumah Sakit Pusat TNI Angkatan Laut (RSPAL) Dr. Ramelan,
Surabaya 60244, Indonesia; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Pharmacy, Rumah Sakit Umum Haji, Surabaya 60177, Indonesia; email@example.com
Department of Pharmacy, RSUD Bangil, Pasuruan 67153, Indonesia; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Food Science, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006,
Auckland 1142, New Zealand; email@example.com
Abstract: The clinical manifestations associated with COVID-19 disease is mainly due to a dysregulated host response related to the overexpression of inflammatory markers. Until recently, only
remdesivir had gained FDA approval for COVID-19 hospitalized patients and there are currently
no evidence-based therapeutic options or options for prevention of complications that have been
established. Some medical treatments such as antivirals, antibacterials, antithrombotics, antipyretics,
corticosteroids, interleukin inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, immunostimulants, and vitamin supplements have been utilized. However, there are limited data to support
their effectiveness. Hence, this study was attempted to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of
antibacterials and antivirals used for COVID-19 using a retrospective cross-sectional approach based
on the medical records of adult patients in four hospitals. The number of antibacterials was calculated
in defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 bed-days unit. Both mixed-logit regression and analysis of
covariance were used to determine the effectiveness of the aforementioned agents in relation to
COVID-19 outcome and patients’ length of stay. The model was weighed accordingly and covariates
(e.g., age) were considered in the model. Heart disease was found to be the most common pre-existing
condition of COVID-19 hospitalized patients in this study. Azithromycin, an antibacterial in the
Watch category list, was used extensively (33–65 DDD..
is less effective
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