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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 45% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 47% Exercise for COVID-19  Yates et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Retrospective 194,031 patients in the United Kingdom Lower mortality (p=0.0015) and severe cases (p<0.0001) Yates et al., Int. J. Obesity, February 2021 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Obesity, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality: analysis of UK Biobank

Yates et al., International Journal of Obesity, doi:10.1038/s41366-021-00771-z
Feb 2021  
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Exercise for COVID-19
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*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
UK Biobank retrospective 412,596 people, showing severe COVID-19 and COVID-19 mortality inversely associated with self-reported walking pace.
risk of death, 45.3% lower, RR 0.55, p = 0.001, high activity levels 72 of 163,912 (0.0%), low activity levels 62 of 30,119 (0.2%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high activity levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
risk of severe case, 46.7% lower, RR 0.53, p < 0.001, high activity levels 291 of 163,912 (0.2%), low activity levels 180 of 30,119 (0.6%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high activity levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
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Yates et al., 26 Feb 2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperExerciseAll
Obesity, walking pace and risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality: analysis of UK Biobank
Thomas Yates, Cameron Razieh, Francesco Zaccardi, Alex V Rowlands, Samuel Seidu, Melanie J Davies, Kamlesh Khunti
International Journal of Obesity, doi:10.1038/s41366-021-00771-z
Obesity is an emerging risk factor for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Simple measures of physical fitness, such as self-reported walking pace, may also be important risk markers. This analysis includes 412,596 UK Biobank participants with linked COVID-19 data (median age at linkage = 68 years, obese = 24%, median number of comorbidities = 1). As of August 24th 2020, there were 1001 cases of severe (in-hospital) disease and 336 COVID-19 deaths. Compared to normal weight individuals, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of severe COVID-19 in overweight and obese individuals was 1.
Author contributions Concept and design: TY, CR, FZ, KK, Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors. Drafting of the manuscript: TY. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors. Statistical analysis: TY. Statistical support: FZ. Compliance with ethical standards Conflict of interest Prof. Kamlesh Khunti is Chair of the UK SAGE subgroup on ethnicity and COVID-19. No other conflicts have been declared. Financial support This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, the NIHR Applied Research Collaboration -East Midlands, and a grant from the UKRI-DHSC COVID-19 Rapid Response Rolling Call (MR/V020536/1). The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Argyridou, Zaccardi, Davies, Khunti, Yates, Walking pace improves all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk prediction: a UK Biobank prognostic study, Eur J Prev Cardiol
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