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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe case 83% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D  Vásquez-Procopio et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 165 patients in Mexico Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.037) Vásquez-Procopio et al., Int. J. Molec.., Dec 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association between 25-OH Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19 Severity in Pregnant Women

Vásquez-Procopio et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms232315188
Dec 2022  
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Retrospective 165 pregnant women in Mexico, showing increased risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 152nd of 185 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 115 vigintillion).
risk of severe case, 82.8% lower, OR 0.17, p = 0.04, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 111, low D levels (<20ng/mL) 54, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Vásquez-Procopio et al., 2 Dec 2022, retrospective, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 12 authors.
Contact: (corresponding author).
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Association between 25-OH Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19 Severity in Pregnant Women
Johana Vásquez-Procopio, Johnatan Torres-Torres, Hector Borboa-Olivares, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Raigam Jafet Martínez-Portilla, Mario Solis-Paredes, Mari-Cruz Tolentino-Dolores, Addy Cecilia Helguera-Repetto, Karla Cecilia Marrufo-Gallegos, Fanis Missirlis, Otilia Perichart-Perera, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms232315188
Evidence from studies in the general population suggests an association between vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and COVID-19 susceptibility and disease severity. The present study was performed on 165 third-trimester pregnant women at the time of delivery. Seventy-nine women tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. From 86 women testing positive, 32 were asymptomatic, 44 presented a mild form of the disease, and 10 experienced severe symptoms. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels were measured on blood samples collected on admission. Low vitamin D levels were detected in symptomatic but not asymptomatic COVID-19 patients compared to healthy women (p = 0.0227). In addition, 20 (45.4%) pregnant women in the mild COVID-19 group and 6 (60%) in the severe group were vitamin D deficient (p = 0.030). On the other hand, lasso regression analysis showed that 25-OH vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19 with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.81 (95% CI: 1.108-30.541; p = 0.037). These results show the relationship between vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and the severity of COVID-19 infection and support the recommendation to supplement with vitamin D to avoid worse COVID-19 outcomes during pregnancy.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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