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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ ICU admission 82% Improvement Relative Risk Moderate/severe case 89% Case 63% Vitamin D  Ferrer-Sánchez et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 82 patients in Spain Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.01) Ferrer-Sánchez et al., Int. J. Environ.., Mar 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study

Ferrer-Sánchez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965
Mar 2022  
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Retrospective 256 pregnant women, 82 with COVID-19 and 174 controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
This is the 126th of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of ICU admission, 81.8% lower, RR 0.18, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 0 of 9 (0.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 4 of 73 (5.5%), NNT 18, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), excluded in exclusion analyses: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of moderate/severe case, 88.7% lower, RR 0.11, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 0 of 9 (0.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 7 of 73 (9.6%), NNT 10, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), excluded in exclusion analyses: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of case, 62.7% lower, OR 0.37, p = 0.01, cutoff 20ng/mL, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ferrer-Sánchez et al., 26 Mar 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
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Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
Nazaret Ferrer-Sánchez, Marina Díaz-Goicoechea, Victoria Mayoral-Cesar, Silvia García-Solbas, Bruno José Nievas-Soriano, Tesifón Parrón-Carreño, Ana María Fernández-Alonso
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965
The physiological changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of complications in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone and its role in immunity is appears to be of particular importance in this recent pandemic. Nevertheless, there is little research about the role of vitamin D levels regarding COVID-19 in pregnant women to date. This study aimed to establish a relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in pregnant women and COVID-19. A comparative case-control study was performed with a study population of 256 pregnant women (82 pregnant women with infection and 174 women in control group). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection than in those without infection. In addition, 89% of COVID-19-positive pregnant women had 25(OH)D deficiency, while in the control group the percentage was 75.30%, finding statistically significant differences (ORa = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19-6.06; p = 0.01). Our results find a relationship between vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and COVID-19 infection. This finding could be relevant for actual clinical practice. Thus, more research is needed in this field.
Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of the Torrecardenas University Hospital (protocol code 2607-143/2020 and date of approval: 27 January 2021). Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.
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