Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
Ferrer-Sánchez et al.
, Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965
Retrospective 256 pregnant women, 82 with COVID-19 and 174 controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
risk of ICU admission, 81.8% lower, RR 0.18, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 0 of 9 (0.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 4 of 73 (5.5%), NNT 18, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), excluded in exclusion analyses:
unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of moderate/severe case, 88.7% lower, RR 0.11, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 0 of 9 (0.0%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 7 of 73 (9.6%), NNT 10, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), excluded in exclusion analyses:
unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of case, 62.7% lower, OR 0.37, p = 0.01, cutoff 20ng/mL, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ferrer-Sánchez et al., 26 Mar 2022, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
Abstract: International Journal of
and Public Health
Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
Nazaret Ferrer-Sánchez 1, *, Marina Díaz-Goicoechea 1 , Victoria Mayoral-Cesar 1 , Silvia García-Solbas 2 ,
Bruno José Nievas-Soriano 3, * , Tesifón Parrón-Carreño 3 and Ana María Fernández-Alonso 1,2
Citation: Ferrer-Sánchez, N.;
Díaz-Goicoechea, M.; Mayoral-Cesar,
V.; García-Solbas, S.; Nievas-Soriano,
B.J.; Parrón-Carreño, T.;
Fernández-Alonso, A.M. Serum
25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant
Women with Coronavirus Disease
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit, Torrecárdenas Hospital, 04009 Almería, Spain;
email@example.com (M.D.-G.); firstname.lastname@example.org (V.M.-C.);
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit, Vithas Virgen del Mar Hospital, 04120 Almería, Spain;
Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Medicine, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain;
Correspondence: email@example.com (N.F.-S.); firstname.lastname@example.org (B.J.N.-S.)
Abstract: The physiological changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of complications in
pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid
hormone and its role in immunity is appears to be of particular importance in this recent pandemic.
Nevertheless, there is little research about the role of vitamin D levels regarding COVID-19 in pregnant
women to date. This study aimed to establish a relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin
D (25(OH)D) levels in pregnant women and COVID-19. A comparative case-control study was
performed with a study population of 256 pregnant women (82 pregnant women with infection and
174 women in control group). Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in pregnant women
with COVID-19 infection than in those without infection. In addition, 89% of COVID-19-positive
pregnant women had 25(OH)D deficiency, while in the control group the percentage was 75.30%,
finding statistically significant differences (ORa = 2.68; 95% CI 1.19–6.06; p = 0.01). Our results find a
relationship between vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and COVID-19 infection. This finding
could be relevant for actual clinical practice. Thus, more research is needed in this field.
2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control
Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public
Keywords: vitamin D; COVID-19; coronavirus; pregnant women
Health 2022, 19, 3965. https://
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
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