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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Ventilation 32% unadjusted Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 4% unadjusted Vitamin D for COVID-19  Bushnaq et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 197 patients in Saudi Arabia Lower ventilation with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.27) Bushnaq et al., Int. J. Environmental .., Feb 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The Impact of Vitamin D Status on COVID-19 Severity among Hospitalized Patients in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

Bushnaq et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031901
Feb 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 197 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are provided only for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
This is the 118th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 32.1% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.27, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 10 of 53 (18.9%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 40 of 144 (27.8%), NNT 11, unadjusted.
risk of ICU admission, 3.9% lower, RR 0.96, p = 0.87, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 23 of 53 (43.4%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 65 of 144 (45.1%), NNT 57, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Bushnaq et al., 8 Feb 2022, retrospective, Saudi Arabia, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
The Impact of Vitamin D Status on COVID-19 Severity among Hospitalized Patients in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Taqwa Bushnaq, Fadiyah Algethami, Alaa Qadhi, Reham Mustafa, Khloud Ghafouri, Wedad Azhar, Asma Al Malki
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031901
The coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads continuously worldwide. The new vaccines and drugs have been approved. The prevention of disease is crucial, and some studies reveal the promising effect of alternative therapies such as vitamin D supplementations on COVID-19 prevention, but they still require sufficient evidence. Therefore, the current retrospective multicenter cross-sectional study aims to determine the primary association between the vitamin D status of hospitalized COVID-19 and its severity as well as mortality. A total of 197 COVID-19 were admitted at King Faisal Hospital, Al Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, and at Complex King Faisal Hospital in Taif in the Westering region of Saudi Arabia (SA) between June and August 2020. The demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory tests included serum 25(OH)D and admission for intensive care unit (ICU), length of stay in the hospital, mechanical ventilation (MV) support, and mortality were recorded and analyzed. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL) was found in 73.10% of all study population. Multiple logistic regression was used after adjusted covariances such as age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). No statistically significant was shown for ICU admission [Odd Ratio, OR 1.25 (95% confidence interval,) p = 0.70], MV support [Odd Ratio, OR 3.12 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.74-13.21) p = 0.12] and mortality [Odd Ratio, OR 2.39 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.31-18.11), p = 0.40]. These data didn't support the association between serum 25(OH)D and the severity of the disease among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Data Availability Statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from [King Faisal Hospital, Al Noor Specialist Hospital, and from Complex King Faisal Hospital] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data, in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
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