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Inflammatory-Metal Profile as a Hallmark for COVID-19 Severity During Pregnancy

Vásquez-Procopio et al., Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, doi:10.3389/fcell.2022.935363
Aug 2022  
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Zinc for COVID-19
2nd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.0000027 from 43 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of 163 COVID+ and 34 COVID- pregnant women in Mexico, showing significantly lower zinc levels in patients with severe COVID-19.
Vásquez-Procopio et al., 9 Aug 2022, prospective, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period July 2020 - March 2021. Contact: gpestrad@gmail.com.
This PaperZincAll
Inflammatory-Metal Profile as a Hallmark for COVID-19 Severity During Pregnancy
Johana Vásquez-Procopio, Aurora Espejel-Nuñez, Johnatan Torres-Torres, Raigam Jafet Martinez-Portilla, Salvador Espino Y. Sosa, Paloma Mateu-Rogell, Veronica Ortega-Castillo, Maricruz Tolentino-Dolores, Otilia Perichart-Perera, José Osman Franco-Gallardo, José Alberto Carranco-Martínez, Scarleth Prieto-Rodríguez, Mario Guzmán-Huerta, Fanis Missirlis, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, doi:10.3389/fcell.2022.935363
Pregnancy makes women more susceptible to infectious agents; however, available data on the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pregnant women are limited. To date, inflammatory responses and changes in serum metal concentration have been reported in COVID-19 patients, but few associations between metal ions and cytokines have been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations between inflammatory markers and serum metal ions in third-trimester pregnant women with varying COVID-19 disease severity. Patients with severe symptoms had increased concentrations of serum magnesium, copper, and calcium ions and decreased concentrations of iron, zinc, and sodium ions. Potassium ions were unaffected. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1α, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, and the IP-10 chemokine were induced in the severe presentation of COVID-19 during pregnancy. Robust negative correlations between iron/magnesium and zinc/IL-6, and a positive correlation between copper/IP-10 were observed in pregnant women with the severe form of the disease. Thus, coordinated alterations of serum metal ions and inflammatory markerssuggestive of underlying pathophysiological interactions-occur during SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy.
ETHICS STATEMENT The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the study was IRB of the National Institute of Perinatology, (Registration number 2020-1-32), and Hospital General de México Dr. Eduardo Liceaga (DI/20/112/03/33). The patients/participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS JV-P, FM, and GE-G designed the research. JV-P, AE-N, and MT-D conducted the measurements. JV-P, PM-R, JT-T, SE, SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2022.935363/ full#supplementary-material Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Note: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
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