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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 35% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Meltzer et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 2,348 patients in the USA Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.11) Meltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., March 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results

Meltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117
Mar 2021  
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Retrospective 4,638 individuals with vitamin D levels within 1 year before COVID-19 testing, showing higher risk of COVID-19 PCR+ for vitamin D deficient individuals, and lower (but not statistically significant) cases for individuals using vitamin D supplementation.
This is the 56th of 185 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 115 vigintillion).
risk of case, 34.6% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.11, high D levels 61 of 1,097 (5.6%), low D levels 118 of 1,251 (9.4%), NNT 26, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, >40ng/mL vs. <20ng/mL, Table 2, Model 2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Meltzer et al., 19 Mar 2021, retrospective, database analysis, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
MD David O Meltzer, PhD Thomas J Best, PhD Hui Zhang, PhD Tamara Vokes, MD Vineet M Arora, MD, MPP Julian Solway
JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117
IMPORTANCE Deficient (ie, <20 ng/mL) or insufficient (ie, 20 to <30 ng/mL) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (also known as calcifediol) levels are more common in Black individuals than White individuals and are associated with increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risk. Whether COVID-19 risk is associated with differences in vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL or greater is not known. OBJECTIVE To examine whether COVID-19 test results are associated with differences in vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL or greater, including for White individuals and for Black individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois. Participants included individuals with data on vitamin D
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Additional Contributions: Data from this study were provided by the Clinical Research Data Warehouse (CRDW) maintained by the Center for Research Informatics (CRI) at University of Chicago. The CRI is funded by Clinical and Translational Sciences Award from the Biological Sciences Division of the Institute for Translational Medicine. Thomas Sutton, MS, and Julie Johnson, PhD, MPH, RN (UChicago CRI), appended additional data to the CRDW for this analysis; they were not compensated for this contribution.
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