Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa
Peg.. Lambda

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
Home COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Bromhexine Meta Metformin Meta
Budesonide Meta
Cannabidiol Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta
Curcumin Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Ensovibep Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Peg.. Lambda Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Quercetin Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Remdesivir Meta
Ivermectin Meta
Lactoferrin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis   Recent:  
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 78% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 15% Progression 53% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Barrett et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 232 patients in Ireland (Mar 2020 - Apr 2021) Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.006) Barrett et al., Nutrients, August 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Status and Mortality from SARS CoV-2: A Prospective Study of Unvaccinated Caucasian Adults

Barrett et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14163252
Aug 2022  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Prospective study of 232 hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients, showing higher risk of mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
This is the 142nd of 184 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 712 vigintillion).
risk of death, 78.4% lower, OR 0.22, p = 0.006, high D levels (≥30nmol/L) 144, low D levels (<30nmol/L) 88, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥30nmol/L), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of ICU admission, 15.3% lower, OR 0.85, p = 0.63, high D levels (≥30nmol/L) 144, low D levels (<30nmol/L) 88, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥30nmol/L), multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of progression, 52.6% lower, OR 0.47, p = 0.12, high D levels (≥30nmol/L) 144, low D levels (<30nmol/L) 88, adjusted per study, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥30nmol/L), extended oxygen requirement, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Barrett et al., 9 Aug 2022, prospective, Ireland, peer-reviewed, mean age 56.0, 19 authors, study period March 2020 - April 2021.
Contact: (corresponding author).
All Studies   Meta Analysis   Submit Updates or Corrections
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Status and Mortality from SARS CoV-2: A Prospective Study of Unvaccinated Caucasian Adults
Robert Barrett, Modar Youssef, Irfan Shah, Julia Ioana, Abdullah Al Lawati, Abdullah Bukhari, Suzanne Hegarty, Liam J Cormican, Eoin Judge, Conor M Burke, Catriona Cody, Joseph Feely, Katrina Hutchinson, William Tormey, Eoghan O’ Neill, Aoife O’ Shea, Meabh Connolly, Daniel M A Mccartney, John L Faul
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14163252
COVID-19 and a low vitamin D state share common risk factors, which might explain why vitamin D deficiency has been linked with higher COVID-19 mortality. Moreover, measures of serum vitamin D may become lower during systemic inflammatory responses, further confounding the association via reverse causality. In this prospective study (recruited over 12 months), we examined whether the association between a low vitamin D state and in-hospital mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects is explained by (i) the presence of shared risk factors (e.g., obesity, advanced age) or (ii) a reduction in serum 25(OH)D due to COVID-19 (i.e., reverse causality). In this cohort of 232 (mean age = 56 years) patients (all had SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed via PCR AND required supplemental oxygen therapy), we failed to find an association between serum vitamin D and levels of CRP, or other inflammatory markers. However, the hazard ratio for mortality for subjects over 70 years of age (13.2) and for subjects with a serum 25(OH)D level less than 30 nmol•L −1 (4.6) remained significantly elevated even after adjustment for gender, obesity and the presence of diabetes mellitus. Subjects <70 years and >70 years had significantly higher mortality with a serum 25(OH)D less than 30 nmol•L −1 (11.8% and 55%), than with a serum 25(OH)D greater than 30 nmol•L −1 (2.2% and 25%). Unvaccinated Caucasian adults with a low vitamin D state have higher mortality due to SARS CoV-2 pneumonia, which is not explained by confounders and is not closely linked with elevated serum CRP.
Akbar, Wibowo, Pranata, Setiabudiawan, Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Front. Nutr, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420
Angelidi, Belanger, Lorinsky, Karamanis, Chamorro-Pareja et al., Vitamin D Status Is Associated With In-Hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients, Mayo Clin. Proc, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001
Annweiler, Corvaisier, Gautier, Dubée, Legrand et al., Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377
Baktash, Hosack, Patel, Shah, Kandiah et al., Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19, Postgrad Med. J, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712
Benskin, A Basic Review of the Preliminary Evidence That COVID-19 Risk and Severity Is Increased in Vitamin D Deficiency, Front. Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.00513
Bian, Jin, Shou, Effects of Monthly Intramuscular High-Dose Vitamin D2 on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Immune Parameters in Very Elderly Chinese Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency, Int. J. Endocrinol, doi:10.1155/2021/1343913
Black, Walton, Flynn, Cashman, Kiely, Small Increments in Vitamin D Intake by Irish Adults over a Decade Show That Strategic Initiatives to Fortify the Food Supply Are Needed, J. Nutr, doi:10.3945/jn.114.209106
Borsche, Glauner, Von Mendel, COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596
Campi, Gennari, Merlotti, Mingiano, Frosali et al., Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: A prospective study in Italy, BMC Infect. Dis, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7
Cashman, Muldowney, Mcnulty, Nugent, Fitzgerald et al., Vitamin D status of Irish adults: Findings from the National Adult Nutrition Survey, Br. J. Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114512003212
Charoenngam, Holick, Immunologic Effects of Vitamin D on Human Health and Disease, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12072097
De Smet, De Smet, Herroelen, Gryspeerdt, Martens, Serum 25(OH)D Level on Hospital Admission Associated With COVID-19 Stage and Mortality, Am. J. Clin. Pathol, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252
Efird, Anderson, Jindal, Redding, Thompson et al., The Interaction of Vitamin D and Corticosteroids: A Mortality Analysis of 26,508 Veterans Who Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010447
Faul, Kerley, Love, O'neill, Cody et al., Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ir. Med. J
Griffin, Wall, Blake, Griffin, Robinson et al., Higher risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency for rural than urban dwellers, J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105547
Haussler, Jurutka, Mizwicki, Norman, Vitamin D receptor (VDR)-mediated actions of 1α,25(OH)2 vitamin D3: Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms, Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1016/j.beem.2011.05.010
Hii, Ferrante, The Non-Genomic Actions of Vitamin, D. Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu8030135
Hyppönen, Berry, Cortina-Borja, Power, 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and pre-clinical alterations in inflammatory and hemostatic markers: A cross sectional analysis in the 1958 British Birth Cohort, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010801
Israel, Cicurel, Feldhamer, Stern, Dror et al., Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher risks for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity: A retrospective case-control study, Intern. Emerg. Med, doi:10.1007/s11739-021-02902-w
Jain, Chaurasia, Sengar, Singh, Mahor et al., Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z
Jeong, Vacanti, Systemic vitamin intake impacting tissue proteomes, Nutr. Metab, doi:10.1186/s12986-020-00491-7
Jevalikar, Mithal, Singh, Sharma, Farooqui et al., Lack of association of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with disease severity and mortality in Indian patients hospitalized for COVID-19, Sci. Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y
Kazemi, Mohammadi, Aghababaee, Golzarand, Clark et al., Association of Vitamin D Status with SARS-CoV-2 Infection or COVID-19 Severity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, Adv. Nutr, doi:10.1093/advances/nmab012
Laird, O'halloran, Carey, Healy, O'connor et al., The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and the determinants of 25(OH)D concentration in older Irish adults: Data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci, doi:10.1093/gerona/glx168
Lippi, Plebani, Henry, Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis, Clin. Chim. Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.022
Patchen, Clark, Gaddis, Hancock, Cassano, Genetically predicted serum vitamin D and COVID-19: A Mendelian randomisation study, BMJ Nutr. Prev. Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000255
Petrelli, Luciani, Perego, Dognini, Colombelli et al., Therapeutic and prognostic role of vitamin D for COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studies, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883
Radujkovic, Hippchen, Tiwari-Heckler, Dreher, Boxberger et al., Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12092757
Reid, Bolland, Grey, Effects of vitamin D supplements on bone mineral density: A systematic review and metaanalysis, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61647-5
Rhodes, Subramanian, Laird, Griffin, Kenny, Perspective: Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severityplausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2 and thrombosis, J. Intern. Med, doi:10.1111/joim.13149
Romero-Ortuno, Cogan, Browne, Healy, Casey et al., Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community-dwelling older people, Age Ageing, doi:10.1093/ageing/afq138
Rostami, Mansouritorghabeh, D-dimer level in COVID-19 infection: A systematic review, Expert Rev. Hematol, doi:10.1080/17474086.2020.1831383
Skversky, Kumar, Abramowitz, Kaskel, Melamed, Association of glucocorticoid use and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 2001-2006, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab, doi:10.1210/jc.2011-1600
Smolders, Van Den Ouweland, Geven, Pickkers, Kox, Letter to the Editor: Vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19: Mixing up cause and consequence, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154434
Sunnetcioglu, Sunnetcioglu, Gurbuz, Bedirhanoglu, Erginoguz et al., Serum 25(OH)D Deficiency and High D-Dimer Levels are Associated with COVID-19 Pneumonia, Clin Lab, doi:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.201050
The, Group, Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19, N. Engl. J. Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2021436
Vassiliou, Jahaj, Pratikaki, Orfanos, Dimopoulou et al., Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773
Walsh, Mccartney, Laird, Mccarroll, Byrne et al., Understanding a Low Vitamin D State in the Context of COVID-19, Front. Pharmacol, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.835480
Wang, C-reactive protein levels in the early stage of COVID-19, Médecine Mal. Infect, doi:10.1016/j.medmal.2020.03.007
Williamson, Walker, Bhaskaran, Bacon, Bates et al., Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY, Nature, doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4
Yao, Cao, Wang, Shi, Liu et al., D-dimer as a biomarker for disease severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients: A case control study, J. Intensive Care, doi:10.1186/s40560-020-00466-z
Zhang, Huang, Administration with corticosteroid relieving pain following total knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis, Medicine, doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000023567
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop