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Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat

Morokutti-Kurz et al., International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/IJGM.S120665
Feb 2017  
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Pre-COVID In Vitro study showing iota-carrageenan lozenges effective against respiratory viruses HRV1a, HRV8, Coxsackievirus A10, influenza A H1N1n, and hCoV OC43.
15 preclinical studies support the efficacy of iota-carrageenan for COVID-19:
Morokutti-Kurz et al., 28 Feb 2017, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:
This PaperIota-carragee..All
Amylmetacresol/2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol, hexylresorcinol, or carrageenan lozenges as active treatments for sore throat
Martina Morokutti-Kurz, Christine Graf, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer
International Journal of General Medicine, doi:10.2147/ijgm.s120665
Up to 80% of sore throats are caused by viruses. Several over the counter products are available which provide symptomatic, not causal relief. For such lozenges, containing the antiseptics and local anesthetics amylmetacresol (AMC) and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl alcohol (DCBA) or hexylresorcinol (HR), recently an additional virucidal effect was published. Therefore, we tested a set of Strepsils ® lozenges, containing either HR (Max [#2]) or AMC/DCBA (Original [#3], Extra Strong [#4], Warm [#5], Orange and Vitamin C [#6], Sugar free Lemon [#7], Children/Strawberry [#8] and Soothing Honey and Lemon [#9]) for their antiviral efficiency against representatives of respiratory viruses known to cause sore throat: human rhinovirus (HRV) 1a, HRV8, influenza virus A H1N1n, Coxsackievirus A10, and human coronavirus (hCoV) OC43. The lozenges were tested head to head with Coldamaris ® lozenges (#1), which contain the patented antiviral iota-carrageenan. None of the tested AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges shows any antiviral effectiveness against HRV8 at the tested concentrations, whereas all are moderately active against HRV1a. Only lozenge #5 shows any activity against hCoV OC43 and Coxsackievirus A10 at the tested concentrations. Similarly, only lozenge #3 is moderately active against influenza A H1N1n virus. The data indicates that neither the isolated effect of the active ingredients nor the pH but rather one or more of the excipients of the specific formulations are responsible for the antiviral effect of some of the AMC/DCBA or HR containing lozenges. In contrast, carrageenancontaining lozenges are highly active against all viruses tested. In another experiment, we showed that binding and inactivation of virus particles by iota-carrageenan are fast and highly effective. During the residence time of the lozenge in the mouth, the viral titer is reduced by 85% and 91% for influenza A virus and hCoV OC43, respectively. Carrageenan-containing lozenges are, therefore, suitable as causative therapy against viral infections of the throat.
International Journal of General Medicine 2017:10 submit your manuscript | Dovepress Dovepress International Journal of General Medicine Dovepress Disclosure The authors Martina Morokutti-Kurz and Christine Graf are employed by Marinomed. Author Eva Prieschl-Grassauer is co-founder of Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH and inventor on patent #WO2008067982 held by Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH that relates to the content of the manuscript. The authors report no other conflicts of interest in this work.
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Eccles, Meier, Jawad, Weinmüllner, Grassauer et al., Efficacy and safety of an antiviral Iota-Carrageenan nasal spray: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study in volunteers with early symptoms of the common cold, Respir Res
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