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Algae Polysaccharides (Carrageenan and Alginate)—A Treasure-Trove of Antiviral Compounds: An In Silico Approach to Identify Potential Candidates for Inhibition of S1-RBD Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2

Rohilla et al., Stresses, doi:10.3390/stresses3030039
Jul 2023  
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In silico study showing the potential antiviral activity of algal polysaccharides alginate and carrageenan against SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking analyses predict that alginate and carrageenan can bind to and inhibit the viral S1-RBD spike protein, preventing its attachment to the host ACE2 receptor. Both algal metabolites showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties, with no predicted toxicity. The results suggest alginate and carrageenan could be promising natural antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection.
14 preclinical studies support the efficacy of iota-carrageenan for COVID-19:
4 In Silico studies Alsaidi, Rohilla, Sattari, Thet
Rohilla et al., 31 Jul 2023, peer-reviewed, 10 authors. Contact: kdpandey2005@gmail.com (corresponding author), diksharohilla2000@gmail.com, akhileshwar.kumar2@gmail.com, rah.singhbhu@gmail.com, priya02061995@gmail.com, sandeepksingh015@gmail.com, dharambhu@gmail.com, bhardwajnikunaj8@gmail.com, kesawatbsmahi@gmail.com, ajaykumar_bhu@yahoo.com.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIota-carragee..All
Algae Polysaccharides (Carrageenan and Alginate)—A Treasure-Trove of Antiviral Compounds: An In Silico Approach to Identify Potential Candidates for Inhibition of S1-RBD Spike Protein of SARS-CoV2
Dikshansha Rohilla, Akhileshwar Kumar Srivastava, Rahul Prasad Singh, Priya Yadav, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Dharmendra Kumar, Nikunj Bhardwaj, Mahipal Singh Kesawat, Kapil Deo Pandey, Ajay Kumar
Stresses, doi:10.3390/stresses3030039
For the last three years, the world has faced the unexpected spread of the pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The high mortality rate and ever-changing shape of the virus are the challenging factors in the effective management of SARS-CoV-2. However, in last three years, research communities have made significant progress in developing vaccines and controlling the spread of the pandemic to a certain extent. These vaccines contain the attenuated pathogens, which after application did not kill the virus but protected the human by enhancing the immune system response during pandemic exposure. However, the negative side effects and the high cost of the synthetic vaccines are always of concern for researchers, consumers, and the government. Therefore, as an alternative to synthetic drugs, natural medicines or natural plant products have piqued researchers' interest. Algae are considered as a treasure house of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamins, polysaccharides, proteins, etc. These bioactive compounds have been well documented for the treatments of various human ailments such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, sulfated polysaccharides such as alginate and carrageenan have been reported as having antiviral and immunomodulating properties. Therefore, this review addresses algal polysaccharides, especially alginate and carrageenan, and their application in the treatment of COVID-19. In addition, in silico approaches are discussed for the inhibition of the S1-RBD (receptor-binding domain) of SARS-CoV-2, which attaches to the host receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and the interaction with the network of relative proteins is also explored, which will help in drug discovery and drug design.
Author Contributions: Conceptualization, A.K. and K.D.P.; Formal analysis D.R., A.K.S., R.P.S., P.Y., S.K.S., D.K., N.B. and M.S.K.; Investigation, A.K.S., M.S.K. and K.D.P.; Methodology A.K.S., M.S.K. and K.D.P.; Supervision A.K., A.K.S. and K.D.P.; Visualization, D.R., A.K.S., P.Y., S.K.S., D.K., N.B. and M.S.K.; Writing-review and editing, D.R., A.K.S., M.S.K. and A.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research received no external funding. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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