Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All paxlovid studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchPaxlovidPaxlovid (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   All Outcomes    Recent:   

Real-world effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against COVID-19 hospitalisations and severe COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans during Omicron BA.2, BA.4/5 and XBB transmission

Wee et al., Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016
Jun 2023  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Severe case 14% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization 35% Paxlovid for COVID-19  Wee et al.  EARLY TREATMENT Is early treatment with paxlovid beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 143,698 patients in Singapore (Mar - Dec 2022) Lower hospitalization with paxlovid (p=0.0015) c19early.org Wee et al., Clinical Microbiology and .., Jun 2023 Favorspaxlovid Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Retrospective 3,959 paxlovid patients and 139,379 untreated controls, showing lower hospitalization with treatment. Contraindicted patients were excluded.
Confounding by treatment propensity. This study analyzes a population where only a fraction of eligible patients received the treatment. Patients receiving treatment may be more likely to follow other recommendations, more likely to receive additional care, and more likely to use additional treatments that are not tracked in the data (e.g., nasal/oral hygiene1,2, vitamin D3, etc.) — either because the physician recommending paxlovid also recommended them, or because the patient seeking out paxlovid is more likely to be familiar with the efficacy of additional treatments and more likely to take the time to use them. Malden et al. confirm significant bias in the use of paxlovid, showing that treated patients are more likely to be from affluent neighborhoods, be more health-conscious, and have better access to care. Therefore, these kind of studies may overestimate the efficacy of treatments.
Confounding by contraindication. Hoertel et al. find that over 50% of patients that died had a contraindication for the use of Paxlovid5. Retrospective studies that do not exclude contraindicated patients may significantly overestimate efficacy.
Black box warning. The FDA notes that "severe, life-threatening, and/or fatal adverse reactions due to drug interactions have been reported in patients treated with paxlovid"6.
Kamo et al. show significantly increased risk of acute kidney injury. Resistant variants are likely8,9.
risk of severe case, 14.0% lower, OR 0.86, p = 0.63, treatment 3,959, control 139,739, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of hospitalization, 35.0% lower, OR 0.65, p = 0.002, treatment 3,959, control 139,739, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Wee et al., 17 Jun 2023, retrospective, Singapore, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period 18 March, 2022 - 31 December, 2022. Contact: ian.wee.l.e@singhealth.com.sg.
This PaperPaxlovidAll
Real-world effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against COVID-19 hospitalisations and severe COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans during Omicron BA.2, BA.4/5 and XBB transmission
Liang En Wee, An Ting Tay, Calvin Chiew, Barnaby Edward Young, Betty Wong, Ruth Lim, Ching Li Lee, Joyce Tan, Shawn Vasoo, David Chien Lye, Kelvin Bryan Tan
Clinical Microbiology and Infection, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016
Real-world effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against COVID-19 hospitalisations and severe COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans during Omicron BA.2, BA.4/5 and XBB transmission
Declarations Declaration of interests The authors report no conflicts of interest. Contribution statement LEW contributed to literature search and writing of the manuscript. ATT, CC, BEY, BW, RL, CLL, JT, SV, DCL and KBT contributed to critical review and editing of the manuscript. DCL and KBT provided supervision. KBT, ATT contributed to study design, data collection, and data analysis. All authors had full access to all the data in the study and take responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. KBT and ATT directly accessed and verified the underlying data reported in the manuscript. J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f
References
Aggarwal, Molina, Beaty, Bennett, Carlson et al., Real-world use of nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in outpatients with COVID-19 during the era of omicron variants including BA.4 and BA.5 in Colorado, USA: a retrospective cohort study, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00056-7
Arbel, Sagy, Hoshen, Battat, Lavie et al., Nirmatrelvir Use and Severe Covid-19 Outcomes during the Omicron Surge, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2204919
Bajema, Wang, Hynes, Rowneki, Hickok et al., Early Adoption of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Pharmacotherapies Among US Veterans With Mild to Moderate COVID-19, JAMA Netw Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.41434
Britton, Embi, Levy, Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults During SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Predominance -VISION Network, 10 States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7142a4
Dryden-Peterson, Kim, Kim, Caniglia, Lennes et al., Nirmatrelvir Plus Ritonavir for Early COVID-19 in a Large U.S. Health System : A Population-Based Cohort Study, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M22-2141
Genomics, Hope, Charlett, Chand, Ghani et al., Comparative analysis of the risks of hospitalisation and death associated with SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) and delta (B.1.617.2) variants in England: a cohort study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00462-7
Gold, Kelleher, Magid, Jackson, Pennini et al., Dispensing of Oral Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of COVID-19 by Zip Code-Level Social Vulnerability -United States, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7125e1
Guenter, Who should receive oral antiviral therapy for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the omicron era? Choose wisely, Clin Microbiol Infect, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2022.11.028
Hammond, Leister-Tebbe, Gardner, Abreu, Wisemandle et al., EPIC-HR Investigators. Oral Nirmatrelvir for High-Risk, Nonhospitalized Adults with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2118542
Imai, Ito, Kiso, Yamayoshi, Uraki et al., Efficacy of Antiviral Agents against Omicron Subvariants BQ.1.1 and XBB, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2214302
Li, Thomas, Li, Addressing Extreme Propensity Scores via the Overlap Weights, Am J Epidemiol, doi:10.1093/aje/kwy201
Nyberg, Ferguson, Nash, Webster, Flaxman et al., None
Pfizer, additional-data-paxlovidtm-supporting Pfizer reports additional data on PAXLOVID supporting upcoming new drug application submission to U
Sackett, Deeks, Altman, Down with odds ratios! Evidence Based Medicine
Savinkina, Paltiel, Ross, Gonsalves, Population-Level Strategies for Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir Prescribing-A Cost-effectiveness Analysis. Open Forum Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofac637
Schwartz, Wang, Tadrous, Langford, Daneman et al., Population-based evaluation of the effectiveness of nirmatrelvirritonavir for reducing hospital admissions and mortality from COVID-19, CMAJ, doi:10.1503/cmaj.221608
Tan, Chiew, Lee, Effectiveness of a Fourth Dose of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Against Omicron Variant Among Elderly People in Singapore, Ann Intern Med, doi:10.7326/M22-2042
Tan, Chiew, Pang, Vaccine effectiveness against Delta, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2 in a highly vaccinated Asian setting: a test-negative design study, Clin Microbiol Infect, doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2022.08.002
Tan, Lam, Matchar, Zee, Wong, Singapore's health-care system: key features, challenges, and shifts, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00252-X
Wagstaff, Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from Japan and the Asian Tigers? Health Econ, doi:10.1002/hec.1180
Wai, Chan, Cheung, Wang, Chan et al., Association of Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir with preventable mortality, hospital admissions and related avoidable healthcare system cost among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Lancet Reg Health West Pac, doi:10.1016/j.lanwpc.2022.100602
Wong, Au, Lau, Lau, Cowling et al., Real-world effectiveness of molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir against mortality, hospitalisation, and in-hospital outcomes among community-dwelling, ambulatory patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the omicron wave in Hong Kong: an observational study, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01586-0
Xie, Bowe, Al-Aly, Nirmatrelvir and risk of hospital admission or death in adults with covid-19: emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic health records, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-073312
Yip, Lui, Lai, Wong, Tse et al., Impact of the use of oral antiviral agents on the risk of hospitalization in community COVID-19 patients, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciac687
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-06-17T04:25:25Z', 'timestamp': 1686975925667}, 'reference-count': 29, 'publisher': 'Elsevier BV', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 6, 1]], 'date-time': '2023-06-01T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1685577600000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/'}], 'content-domain': { 'domain': ['clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com', 'elsevier.com', 'sciencedirect.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6]]}, 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-06-17T01:42:07Z', 'timestamp': 1686966127000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/elsevier_cm_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Real-world effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against COVID-19 hospitalisations and severe ' 'COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans during Omicron BA.2, BA.4/5 and XBB ' 'transmission', 'prefix': '10.1016', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6428-9999', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Liang En', 'family': 'Wee', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'An Ting', 'family': 'Tay', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Calvin', 'family': 'Chiew', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Barnaby Edward', 'family': 'Young', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Betty', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ruth', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Ching Li', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Joyce', 'family': 'Tan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Shawn', 'family': 'Vasoo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'David Chien', 'family': 'Lye', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Kelvin Bryan', 'family': 'Tan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '78', 'reference': [ { 'issue': '15', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1397', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2118542', 'article-title': 'Oral Nirmatrelvir for High-Risk, Nonhospitalized Adults with Covid-19', 'volume': '386', 'author': 'Hammond', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '10332', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1303', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00462-7', 'article-title': 'Comparative analysis of the risks of hospitalisation and death ' 'associated with SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529) and delta (B.1.617.2) ' 'variants in England: a cohort study', 'volume': '399', 'author': 'Nyberg', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '790', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2204919', 'article-title': 'Nirmatrelvir Use and Severe Covid-19 Outcomes during the Omicron Surge', 'volume': '387', 'author': 'Arbel', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '77', 'DOI': '10.7326/M22-2141', 'article-title': 'Nirmatrelvir Plus Ritonavir for Early COVID-19 in a Large U.S. Health ' 'System : A Population-Based Cohort Study', 'volume': '176', 'author': 'Dryden-Peterson', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'article-title': 'Real-world use of nirmatrelvir–ritonavir in outpatients with COVID-19 ' 'during the era of omicron variants including BA.4 and BA.5 in Colorado, ' 'USA: a retrospective cohort study', 'author': 'Aggarwal', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00011-7'}, { 'issue': '10359', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1213', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01586-0', 'volume': '400', 'author': 'Wong', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib7', 'first-page': 'ciac687', 'article-title': 'Impact of the use of oral antiviral agents on the risk of ' 'hospitalization in community COVID-19 patients', 'author': 'Yip', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib8', 'article-title': 'Association of Molnupiravir and Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir with preventable ' 'mortality, hospital admissions and related avoidable healthcare system ' 'cost among high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19', 'volume': '30', 'author': 'Wai', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Reg Health West Pac'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib9', 'unstructured': 'Pfizer, New York, USA. ' 'https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-reports-additional-data-paxlovidtm-supporting ' 'Pfizer reports additional data on PAXLOVID supporting upcoming new drug ' 'application submission to U.S. FDA [press release]. 2022 [cited 2023 Jan ' '24].'}, { 'issue': '13', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'E220', 'DOI': '10.1503/cmaj.221608', 'article-title': 'Population-based evaluation of the effectiveness of ' 'nirmatrelvir–ritonavir for reducing hospital admissions and mortality ' 'from COVID-19', 'volume': '195', 'author': 'Schwartz', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'CMAJ'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib11', 'article-title': 'Nirmatrelvir and risk of hospital admission or death in adults with ' 'covid-19: emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic ' 'health records', 'volume': '381', 'author': 'Xie', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '89', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMc2214302', 'article-title': 'Efficacy of Antiviral Agents against Omicron Subvariants BQ.1.1 and XBB', 'volume': '388', 'author': 'Imai', 'year': '2023', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib13', 'unstructured': 'Ministry of Health, Singapore ' 'https://www.covid.gov.sg/well-and-positive-or-condition-assessed-mild-by-doctor/ ' 'COVID-19 protocols [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 24]'}, { 'issue': '22', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib14', 'first-page': '00418', 'article-title': 'Vaccine effectiveness against Delta, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2 in a highly ' 'vaccinated Asian setting: a test-negative design study', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'Tan', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infect'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1622', 'DOI': '10.7326/M22-2042', 'article-title': 'Effectiveness of a Fourth Dose of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Against Omicron ' 'Variant Among Elderly People in Singapore', 'volume': '175', 'author': 'Tan', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Ann Intern Med'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib16', 'unstructured': 'Ministry of Health, Singapore ' 'https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/update-on-covid-19-situation-and-measures-to-protect-healthcare-capacity. ' 'Update on COVID-19 situation- XBB subvariant [Internet]. 2022 [cited ' '2023 Jan 24]'}, { 'issue': '10305', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1091', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00252-X', 'article-title': "Singapore's health-care system: key features, challenges, and shifts", 'volume': '398', 'author': 'Tan', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'issue': '42', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '1335', 'DOI': '10.15585/mmwr.mm7142a4', 'article-title': 'Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated ' 'Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults During SARS-CoV-2 ' 'Omicron Predominance - VISION Network, 10 States, December', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Britton', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib19', 'unstructured': 'Ministry of Health, Singapore ' 'https://www.moh.gov.sg/covid-19/vaccination/statistics Vaccination ' 'statistics [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 24]'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib20', 'unstructured': 'National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore. Updated COVID-19 ' 'Therapy Guidance and Oral Antiviral Prescribing Checklist. [Internet]. ' '2022 [cited 2023 Jan 24]'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '441', 'DOI': '10.1002/hec.1180', 'article-title': 'Health systems in East Asia: what can developing countries learn from ' 'Japan and the Asian Tigers?', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'Wagstaff', 'year': '2007', 'journal-title': 'Health Econ'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib22', 'unstructured': 'Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford, United Kingdom. Number ' 'needed to treat (NNT). [cited 2023 8th April]; Available from: ' 'http://www.cebm.net/number-needed-to-treat-nnt/. 2023.'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib23', 'first-page': '164', 'article-title': 'Down with odds ratios', 'volume': '1', 'author': 'Sackett', 'year': '1996', 'journal-title': 'Evidence Based Medicine'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib24', 'first-page': '250', 'article-title': 'Addressing Extreme Propensity Scores via the Overlap Weights', 'volume': '188', 'author': 'Li', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'Am J Epidemiol'}, { 'issue': '22', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib25', 'first-page': '00601', 'article-title': 'Who should receive oral antiviral therapy for severe acute respiratory ' 'syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in the omicron era? Choose wisely', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'Guenter', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Clin Microbiol Infect'}, { 'issue': '12', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': 'ofac637', 'DOI': '10.1093/ofid/ofac637', 'article-title': 'Population-Level Strategies for Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir Prescribing-A ' 'Cost-effectiveness Analysis', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Savinkina', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Open Forum Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib27', 'unstructured': 'Ministry of Health, Singapore. ' 'https://www.moh.gov.sg/news-highlights/details/increased-accessibility-to-paxlovid-for-eligible-covid-19-patients ' 'Increased accessibility to paxlovid for eligible COVID-19 patients. ' '[Internet]. 2022 [cited 2023 Jan 24]'}, { 'issue': '25', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '825', 'DOI': '10.15585/mmwr.mm7125e1', 'article-title': 'Dispensing of Oral Antiviral Drugs for Treatment of COVID-19 by Zip ' 'Code-Level Social Vulnerability - United States, December 23, 2021-May ' '21, 2022', 'volume': '71', 'author': 'Gold', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016_bib29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.41434', 'article-title': 'Early Adoption of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Pharmacotherapies Among US Veterans ' 'With Mild to Moderate COVID-19, January and February 2022', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'Bajema', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open'}], 'container-title': 'Clinical Microbiology and Infection', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1198743X2300294X?httpAccept=text/xml', 'content-type': 'text/xml', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://api.elsevier.com/content/article/PII:S1198743X2300294X?httpAccept=text/plain', 'content-type': 'text/plain', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2023, 6, 17]], 'date-time': '2023-06-17T01:42:26Z', 'timestamp': 1686966146000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198743X2300294X'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6]]}, 'references-count': 29, 'alternative-id': ['S1198743X2300294X'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1198-743X'], 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases', 'Microbiology (medical)', 'General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Clinical Microbiology and Infection', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2023, 6]]}, 'assertion': [ {'value': 'Elsevier', 'name': 'publisher', 'label': 'This article is maintained by'}, { 'value': 'Real-world effectiveness of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir against COVID-19 ' 'hospitalisations and severe COVID-19 in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans ' 'during Omicron BA.2, BA.4/5 and XBB transmission', 'name': 'articletitle', 'label': 'Article Title'}, { 'value': 'Clinical Microbiology and Infection', 'name': 'journaltitle', 'label': 'Journal Title'}, { 'value': 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2023.06.016', 'name': 'articlelink', 'label': 'CrossRef DOI link to publisher maintained version'}, {'value': 'article', 'name': 'content_type', 'label': 'Content Type'}, { 'value': '© 2023 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. ' 'Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.', 'name': 'copyright', 'label': 'Copyright'}]}
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit