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Vitamin C Deficiency in Blood Samples of COVID-19 Patients

Sinnberg et al., Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox11081580
Aug 2022  
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Vitamin A for COVID-19
42nd treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2023
 
*, now with p = 0.021 from 14 studies.
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4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Analysis of 74 COVID-19 patients and 8 controls in Germany, showing low vitamin C levels associated with mortality. There was no significant difference for vitamin A, D, or E levels. Very few group details are provided, for example the age of patients in the control group and each severity group is not provided.
Study covers vitamin D, vitamin A, and vitamin C.
Sinnberg et al., 15 Aug 2022, retrospective, Germany, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period February 2020 - November 2020. Contact: luigi.marongiu@uni-tuebingen.de (corresponding author), sascha.venturelli@uni-hohenheim.de.
This PaperVitamin AAll
Vitamin C Deficiency in Blood Samples of COVID-19 Patients
Tobias Sinnberg, Christa Lichtensteiger, Katharina Hill-Mündel, Christian Leischner, Heike Niessner, Christian Busch, Olga Renner, Nina Wyss, Lukas Flatz, Ulrich M Lauer, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Donatus Nohr, Markus Burkard, Luigi Marongiu, Sascha Venturelli
Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox11081580
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most notable pandemic of the modern era. A relationship between ascorbate (vitamin C) and COVID-19 severity is well known, whereas the role of other vitamins is less understood. The present study compared the blood levels of four vitamins in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with different severities and uninfected individuals. Serum concentrations of ascorbate, calcidiol, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in a cohort of 74 COVID-19 patients and 8 uninfected volunteers. The blood levels were statistically compared and additional co-morbidity factors were considered. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower plasma ascorbate levels than the controls (p-value < 0.001), and further stratification revealed that the controls had higher levels than fatal, critical, and severe COVID-19 cases (p-values < 0.001). However, no such trend was observed for calcidiol, retinol, or α-tocopherol (p-value ≥ 0.093). Survival analysis showed that plasma ascorbate below 11.4 µM was associated with a lengthy hospitalization and a high risk of death. The results indicated that COVID-19 cases had depleted blood ascorbate associated with poor medical conditions, confirming the role of this vitamin in the outcome of COVID-19 infection.
Conflicts of Interest: The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.
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Res.'}, {'key': 'ref69', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.22037/uj.v18i.6863'}, {'key': 'ref70', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/antiox6030049'}, {'key': 'ref71', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819'}], 'container-title': 'Antioxidants', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/11/8/1580/pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-08-16T08:06:31Z', 'timestamp': 1660637191000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/11/8/1580'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 15]]}, 'references-count': 71, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '8', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 8]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['antiox11081580'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081580', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2076-3921'], 'subject': ['Cell Biology', 'Clinical Biochemistry', 'Molecular Biology', 'Biochemistry', 'Physiology'], 'container-title-short': 'Antioxidants', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 8, 15]]}}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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