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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 9% Improvement Relative Risk Case (b) 12% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Li et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 18,148 patients in the USA No significant difference in cases c19early.org Li et al., JAMA Network Open, May 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults

Li et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634
May 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after.
Authors state that "low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the
risk of seropositivity", however there is significant correlation between some adjustment variables and vitamin D levels in the logistic regression that prevent drawing this conclusion statisticsbyjim.com. Details of the logistic regression in the matched sample set are not provided.
Authors analyze only 20ng/mL and 30ng/mL cutoff points, other studies use 10ng/mL (or 12), where more significant differences are typically seen.
This is the 65th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of case, 8.6% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.24, high D levels 610 of 13,650 (4.5%), low D levels 290 of 4,498 (6.4%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, Figure 2.
risk of case, 12.4% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.07, high D levels 289 of 7,272 (4.0%), low D levels 611 of 10,876 (5.6%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >30ng/mL, Figure 2.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Li et al., 19 May 2021, retrospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults
PhD Yonghong Li, MS Carmen H Tong, PhD; Lance A Bare, PhD James J Devlin
JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634
IMPORTANCE Low vitamin D levels have been reported to be associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Independent, well-powered studies could further our understanding of this association. OBJECTIVE To examine whether low levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, an indicator of previous infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This is a cohort study of employees and spouses who elected to be tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG as part of an annual employer-sponsored health screening program conducted in August to November 2020. This program includes commonly assessed demographic, biometric, and laboratory variables, including total vitamin D measurement. Baseline (prepandemic) levels of vitamin D and potential confounders were obtained from screening results from the previous year (September 2019 to January 2020). Data analysis was performed from December 2020 to March 2021. EXPOSURES Low total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, defined as either less than 20 ng/mL or less than 30 ng/mL. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome was SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, as determined with US Food and Drug Administration emergency use-authorized assays. The association of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with vitamin D levels was assessed by multivariable logistic regression analyses and propensity score analyses. RESULTS The 18 148 individuals included in this study had test results for SARS-CoV-2 IgG in 2020 and vitamin D levels from the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Their median (interquartile range) age was 47 (37-56) years, 12 170 (67.1%) were women, 900 (5.0%) were seropositive, 4498 (24.8%) had a vitamin D level less than 20 ng/mL, and 10 876 (59.9%) had a vitamin D level less than 30 ng/mL before the pandemic. In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking status, and geographical location, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was not associated with having a vitamin D level less than 20 ng/mL before (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.22) or during (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.09) the pandemic; it was also not associated with having a vitamin D level less than 30 ng/mL before (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.93-1.27) or during (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.91-1.23) the pandemic. Similar results were observed in propensity score
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported. Funding/Support: Quest Diagnostics provided funding for this study. Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The funder reviewed and approved the manuscript. Additional Contributions: Jeff Radcliff, BS (Director, Global Scientific Publications and Medical Education, Quest Diagnostics), edited the manuscript; Andre A. Arellano, BS (Staff Scientist, Quest Diagnostics), helped with data acquisition; and Charles M. Rowland, MS (Director of Science, Quest Diagnostics), provided statistical advice. No compensation was received beyond usual salary.
References
Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
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Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252
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