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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 42% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 41% Hospitalization 61% Vitamin C for COVID-19  Sinnberg et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin C levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 74 patients in Germany (February - November 2020) Lower hospitalization with higher vitamin C levels (p=0.05) Sinnberg et al., Antioxidants, August 2022 Favors vitamin C Favors control

Vitamin C Deficiency in Blood Samples of COVID-19 Patients

Sinnberg et al., Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox11081580
Aug 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Analysis of 74 COVID-19 patients and 8 controls in Germany, showing low vitamin C levels associated with mortality. There was no significant difference for vitamin A, D, or E levels. Very few group details are provided, for example the age of patients in the control group and each severity group is not provided.
Study covers vitamin D, vitamin A, and vitamin C.
risk of death, 41.9% lower, HR 0.58, p = 0.38, high vitamin C levels (≥11.4μM) 0 of 15 (0.0%), low vitamin C levels (<11.4μM) 9 of 59 (15.3%), NNT 6.6, adjusted per study, inverted to make HR<1 favor high vitamin C levels (≥11.4μM), survival analysis.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 40.9% lower, HR 0.59, p = 0.17, high vitamin C levels (≥11.4μM) 15, low vitamin C levels (<11.4μM) 59, adjusted per study, ventilation time survival analysis.
risk of hospitalization, 60.7% lower, HR 0.39, p = 0.0498, high vitamin C levels (≥11.4μM) 15, low vitamin C levels (<11.4μM) 59, adjusted per study, hospitalization time survival analysis.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Sinnberg et al., 15 Aug 2022, retrospective, Germany, peer-reviewed, 15 authors, study period February 2020 - November 2020. Contact: (corresponding author),
This PaperVitamin CAll
Vitamin C Deficiency in Blood Samples of COVID-19 Patients
Tobias Sinnberg, Christa Lichtensteiger, Katharina Hill-Mündel, Christian Leischner, Heike Niessner, Christian Busch, Olga Renner, Nina Wyss, Lukas Flatz, Ulrich M Lauer, Ludwig E Hoelzle, Donatus Nohr, Markus Burkard, Luigi Marongiu, Sascha Venturelli
Antioxidants, doi:10.3390/antiox11081580
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the most notable pandemic of the modern era. A relationship between ascorbate (vitamin C) and COVID-19 severity is well known, whereas the role of other vitamins is less understood. The present study compared the blood levels of four vitamins in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with different severities and uninfected individuals. Serum concentrations of ascorbate, calcidiol, retinol, and α-tocopherol were measured in a cohort of 74 COVID-19 patients and 8 uninfected volunteers. The blood levels were statistically compared and additional co-morbidity factors were considered. COVID-19 patients had significantly lower plasma ascorbate levels than the controls (p-value < 0.001), and further stratification revealed that the controls had higher levels than fatal, critical, and severe COVID-19 cases (p-values < 0.001). However, no such trend was observed for calcidiol, retinol, or α-tocopherol (p-value ≥ 0.093). Survival analysis showed that plasma ascorbate below 11.4 µM was associated with a lengthy hospitalization and a high risk of death. The results indicated that COVID-19 cases had depleted blood ascorbate associated with poor medical conditions, confirming the role of this vitamin in the outcome of COVID-19 infection.
Conflicts of Interest: The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.
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