Cholecalciferol level and its impact on COVID-19 patients
Mohammed Abdel Monem Saeed, Alaa Hussein Mohamed, Ahmed Hassan Owaynat
The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1186/s43162-022-00116-w
Background: Cholecalciferol is an important nutrient and essential to build body, maintain strong bones, and improves immunity. The main source for vitamin D is the body's skin which absorbs the sun's ultraviolet rays and convert them into vitamin D; at the same time, deficiency can occur or people may not get enough supplementation; this occurs mainly in old age, not taking healthy food, or have darker skin, and this deficient cases can raise the risk of severe COVID-19 if infected. Vitamin D boosts immunity and decreases inflammation. Poorer outcome of corona virus-disease (COVID-19) has been suggested to be due to vitamin D deficiency. We suggested to find the effect of cholecalciferol levels 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25 OHD) on the severity and mortality in patients suffering from COVID-19.
Methods: Our study is a prospective following of 414 patients admitted in Helwan University Hospitals in the period of June 2020 till October 2021 for severely symptomatic. COVID-19 patients with median of age 54.55 ± 14.27, with a definite range of APACHE II score ranging from 15 to 19 where we measured vitamin D 3 level (cholecalciferol level), correlating the assay level to the inflammatory cytokine storm markers on admission, on the fifth day and after 10 days also the level of vitamin D 3 was correlated to the length of stay mechanical ventilation days and mortality. Results: Lower level of vitamin D 3 on admission was strongly evident in patients with severely symptomatic and in mortality of COVID-19 patients 58.25 ± 24.59 nmol/L when compared with patients who survived 103.97 ± 36.14 nmol/L with P value < 0.001. Also, when correlating the initial level of vitamin D 3 on admission with the level of the inflammatory cytokine storm markers on admission, on fifth day from admission and on the tenth day, it shows a strong inverse correlation between vitamin D 3 level on admission and ferritin level on fifth day ρ-0.739 p value < 0.001 also on the tenth day ρ-0.885, P value < 0.001, in comparing also with D-dimer on fifth day ρ-0.858, p value < 0.001 also showing a strong inverse correlation with a highly significant p value this also evident on the D-dimer level on the tenth day ρ-0.889 with p value < 0.001, CRP at fifth and tenth day ρ-0.868, P value < 0.001, ρ-0.891, P value < 0.001 respectively also in correlating the LDH level on the fifth and tenth day with the initial level of vitamin D 3 it shows a strong inverse correlation with a highly significant p value. ρ-0.887, P value < 0.001, ρ-0.878, p value < 0.001 respectively, in the fifth and tenth day. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was strongly, inversely correlated to the vitamin D 3 level (cholecalciferol) on admission with ρ-0.753, p < 0.001, ρ-0.882, P < 0.001 respectively. Also, chest computed tomography in the fifth and
Authors' contributions MS, AM, and AO read and approved the final manuscript.
Funding No funding.
Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate All taken and available.
Consent for publication Available.
Competing interests All authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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