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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case, 10ng/ml 77% Improvement Relative Risk Case, 20ng/ml 46% Protas et al. Vitamin D for COVID-19 Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 119 patients in Kazakhstan (October - November 2022) Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.061) Protas et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071781 Favors vitamin D Favors control
Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and VDR Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs2228570 Influence on COVID-19 Susceptibility among the Kazakh Ethnic Group—A Pilot Study
Protas et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071781
Protas et al., Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and VDR Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs2228570 Influence on COVID-19.., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071781
Apr 2023   Source   PDF  
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Retrospective 119 patients in Kazakhstan, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. There was an association between rs2228570 of the VDR gene and COVID-19. The C allele was associated with reduced likelihood of COVID-19, while the GG genotype increased risk.
This is the 170th of 175 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 18 vigintillion).
risk of case, 76.6% lower, OR 0.23, p = 0.06, high D levels (≥10ng/ml) 68 of 88 (77.3%) cases, 29 of 31 (93.5%) controls, NNT 4.8, case control OR.
risk of case, 46.2% lower, OR 0.54, p = 0.17, high D levels (≥20ng/ml) 50 of 88 (56.8%) cases, 22 of 31 (71.0%) controls, NNT 8.8, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Protas et al., 6 Apr 2023, retrospective, Kazakhstan, peer-reviewed, survey, 6 authors, study period October 2022 - November 2022.
Contact: (corresponding author),
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Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and VDR Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs2228570 Influence on COVID-19 Susceptibility among the Kazakh Ethnic Group—A Pilot Study
Valeriya V Protas, Gayane P Pogossyan, Konstantin G Li, Assel G Zhumina, Anar K Bisseneva, Dinara N Shaikina
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15071781
Low plasma levels of the vitamin D metabolite 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with the body's susceptibility to infectious diseases, including COVID-19. In this pilot retrospective study, representatives of the Kazakh population (central Kazakhstan) were divided into groups based on the test for IgM and IgG for coronavirus infection. We compared the 25(OH)D plasma levels and concluded that the COVID-19-positive group values (25.17 ng/mL ± 16.65) were statistically lower (p = 0.0114) compared to the COVID-19-negative ones (35.58 ng/mL ± 20.67). There was no association between age, gender and 25(OH)D concentration within the groups (p > 0.05). The genotyping of rs2228570 was performed using a TaqMan Real-Time PCR assay. Allele C predominated among the COVID-19-negative participants and significantly reduced the likelihood of coronavirus infection (p < 0.0001; OR = 0.0804; 95% CI 0.02357-0.2798). There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of the A, G and T alleles in the studied groups (p > 0.05). The GG genotype of rs2228570 was associated with a 4.131-fold increased likelihood of COVID-19 infection (p = 0.0288; χ 2 = 5.364; OR = 4.131; 95% CI 1. 223-13.71). Comprehensive studies are required to determine whether low 25(OH)D plasma concentrations and genetic background represent a risk factor for COVID-19 infection.
19, while the GG genotype increased these odds. Further studies on specific groups with a larger sample size and complete data in the Kazakh population are required. Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https: //, Table S1 : Characteristics of study participants; Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study.
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