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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 50% Improvement Relative Risk Severe case 68% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Nimavat et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 156 patients in India Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.0027) Nimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and.., Aug 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in India

Nimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661
Aug 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Case control study with 156 PCR+ cases in India and 204 controls, showing more frequent vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and an association between lower vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity.
This is the 84th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 50.4% lower, RR 0.50, p = 0.17, high D levels 13 of 131 (9.9%), low D levels 5 of 25 (20.0%), NNT 9.9, >10ng/mL, within cases.
risk of severe case, 67.6% lower, RR 0.32, p = 0.003, high D levels 17 of 131 (13.0%), low D levels 10 of 25 (40.0%), NNT 3.7, >10ng/mL, within cases.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nimavat et al., 5 Aug 2021, retrospective, India, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in India
Nirav Nimavat, Shruti Singh, Pratibha Singh, Sunil Kumar Singh, Nishi Sinha
Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661
Background: As the pandemic COVID-19 affected developing and developed countries, there is no proven treatment options available yet. The anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune modulator effect of Vitamin D could be beneficial to COVID-19. Aim: To find out the possible association between Vitamin D and COVID-19. Methods: The present case-control study was conducted at tertiary care hospital, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India. Total 156 cases and 204 controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Categorization of the patients were done based on clinical severity and level of Vitamin D. The association between these categories with different variables were analyzed using regression analysis and other statistical tests. Results: The status of Vitamin D (optimal, mild to moderate deficiency and severe deficiency) differed significantly among cases and controls. Diabetes and hypertension were most prevalent comorbidities among cases. On regression analysis, the difference in Vitamin D level was significant (aOR, 3.295; 95%CI,). The association between Vitamin D status and clinical severity group was statistically significant among cases. Among all variables, age, diabetes, hypertension and clinical severity were associated with worst outcome. Conclusion: Vitamin D status appears to be strongly associated with COVID-19 clinical severity. After COVID-19 confirmation, Vitamin D level should be measured in all patients and curative plus preventive therapy should be initiated.
Author contribution All authors contributed significantly and in agreement with the content of the article. All authors were involved in project design, data collection, analysis, statistical analysis, data interpretation and writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final, submitted version. Registration of research studies 1 Research Registry registration ID -researchregistry7001 Guarantor Shruti Singh. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests. Funding agency There was not any direct fund to carry out the research.
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