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Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational study

Padhi et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001
Sep 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in Indian states and union territories, showing an inverse correlation of vitamin D levels with SARS-CoV-2 cases and mortality.
Padhi et al., 14 Sep 2021, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational study
Sunali Padhi, Subham Suvankar, Venketesh K Panda, Abhijit Pati, Aditya K Panda
International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001
Background: The role of vitamin D in the susceptibility and severity of various viral diseases has been well documented. Recently, some reports highlighted the possible importance of vitamin D in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although India receives adequate sunlight throughout the year, the majority of Indians are deficient in vitamin D levels. In the present study, we hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency would be associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate and mortality in the Indian population. Materials and methods: SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality data were obtained from the Government of India's official website (accessed on 16th August 2020). Various literature databases like PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to find the mean of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in different states and union territories of India, Pearson correlation was carried out to investigate the possible link between mean 25(OH)D levels and SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality per million of the population. Results: An inverse correlation was observed between the mean level of 25(OH)D and SARS-CoV-2 infection rate (r = −0.43, p = 0.02) and mortality rate (r = −0.42, p = 0.02). Conclusions: The present observational study revealed an association of vitamin D with SARS-CoV-2 infection and related mortality. Further studies are required to validate our observations.
Writing -review & editing. Appendix A. Supplementary material Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://
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