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Serum levels of vitamin D and immune system function in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit

Soltani-Zangbar et al., Gene Reports, doi:10.1016/j.genrep.2022.101509
Jan 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
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Analysis of 50 COVID-19 ICU patients and 50 healthy controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Soltani-Zangbar et al., 15 Jan 2022, prospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Serum levels of vitamin D and immune system function in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit
Mohammad Sadegh Soltani-Zangbar, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Sanam Dolati, Ali Shamekh, Sepehr Valizadeh, Mehdi Yousefi, Sarvin Sanaie
Gene Reports, doi:10.1016/j.genrep.2022.101509
Vitamin D is believed to affect the functionality of the immune system for the prevention of coronavirus disease. To investigate the role of this vitamin against the Coronavirus, this study analyzed the serum levels of vitamin D, the transcription pattern of inflammatory cytokines, and the frequency of total lymphocytes, TCD4 + , TCD8 + , and NK cells in 50 COVID-19-affected subjects in comparison to 50 healthy participants. Materials and methods: This study diagnosed and evaluated 100 patients. Frequency of lymphocytes was determined using flow cytometry. Cytokine expression levels were measured using Real-Time PCR. Serum levels of vitamin D and cytokines levels in cultured cell supernatant were measured by ELISA. Results: Patients with COVID-19 exhibited decreased serum levels of vitamin D versus the healthy participants (p = 0.0024). The total number of lymphocytes, TCD4 + , TCD8 + , and NK cells was significantly reduced in patients with COVID-19 (p < 0.0001). Considerable upregulation of IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α was seen in COVID-19 patients compared to the control group, whereas IFN-α was downregulated in COVID-19 patients. ELISA results also had increased levels of IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (p = 0.0014, 0.0012, and p < 0.0001, respectively), and decreased level of IFN-α (p = 0.0021) in patients with COVID-19 compared to the control group. Conclusion: These findings suggest a probable association among vitamin D concentrations, immune system function, and risk of COVID-19 infection. As a result, it is recommended that vitamin D be considered as a candidate for handling and controlling COVID-19 because of its ability to target the cytokine storm and its antiviral effects.
Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate The current study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Tabriz University of Medical Science (No: IR.TBZMED.REC.1398.1313). Financial disclosure statements The current study was supported by Aging Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran (Grant No. 65213 ).
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