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Polysaccharides and Lectins: A Natural Complementary Approach against the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic

Lefter et al., Microbiology Research, doi:10.3390/microbiolres15020035
Apr 2024  
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Review of polysaccharides and lectins as a complementary approach against SARS-CoV-2. Authors discuss the antiviral activity of various polysaccharides like carrageenans, heparin, chondroitin sulfates, hyaluronans, fucoidans, and alginate that can inhibit viral attachment and entry by binding to the spike protein. Plant, mushroom, and algae-derived polysaccharides are also reviewed. The antiviral activity of lectins is covered, with mannose-binding lectins showing strong anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects. Authors analyze the potential synergistic and competitive interactions between polysaccharides and lectins in targeting the viral life cycle at multiple stages. The combination of polysaccharides and lectins is proposed as a complementary strategy to comprehensively inhibit SARS-CoV-2.
Reviews covering iota-carrageenan for COVID-19 include1-4.
Lefter et al., 9 Apr 2024, Romania, peer-reviewed, 11 authors. Contact: gabriella_halitchi@yahoo.com (corresponding author), prairnabalyan14@gmail.com, ahmadali@mu.ac.in, balmus.ioanamiruna@yahoo.com, echchahad@gmail.com, catalinaionescu81@yahoo.com, pantoneta@yahoo.com, bogdannvc@gmail.com, fatimzahra.kamal@gmail.com.
This PaperIota-carragee..All
Polysaccharides and Lectins: A Natural Complementary Approach against the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic
Radu Lefter, Prairna Balyan, Ioana-Miruna Balmus, Abdellah Ech-Chahad, Ahmad Ali, Alin Ciobica, Antoneta Dacia Petroaie, Gabriela Halitchi, Bogdan Novac, Catalina Ionescu, Fatima Zahra Kamal
Microbiology Research, doi:10.3390/microbiolres15020035
Infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the cause of coronavirus disease , has emerged as a global pandemic, with a high toll on casualties, economic impact, and human lifestyle. Despite the recent approval of various vaccines against the virus, challenges remain, including the limited availability of these vaccines, the prevalent rejection of vaccination by a large proportion of the population, and the recurrent appearance of new variants of the virus due to mutations. This context raises the alarm for scientists and clinicians to seek alternative and complementary therapies. In this context, natural products and their derivatives serve as reservoirs for potential therapeutic compounds that can be exploited in the research and production of antiviral drugs against COVID-19. Among these substances, lectin and polysaccharides isolated from fauna and flora emerge as complementary strategies for treating coronavirus infection. The review objective is to cover and analyze the specific role of polysaccharides and lectins and their synergy in the fight against this deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus. For this purpose, a primary literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Sciences using relevant keywords like "SARS-CoV-2 Variants"; "Antiviral Strategies"; "Antiviral Polysaccharides"; "Antiviral Lectins"; and "Synergistic effect". The results demonstrate that lectins and polysaccharides exhibit antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 via mechanisms related to binding and steric blocking, the binding of glycan-based decoys, chemical reactions, virus particle disruption strategies, and steric blocking for competitive inhibition to block SARS-CoV-2 and its variants' entry. In addition, this review analyzes the rationale behind combining polysaccharides and lectins, emphasizing complementary mechanisms of action. By simultaneously targeting multiple stages of the viral life cycle, this dual strategy aims to comprehensively inhibit viral propagation and enhance the durability of antiviral strategies over time.
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This context raises the alarm for ' 'scientists and clinicians to seek alternative and complementary therapies. In this context, ' 'natural products and their derivatives serve as reservoirs for potential therapeutic ' 'compounds that can be exploited in the research and production of antiviral drugs against ' 'COVID-19. Among these substances, lectin and polysaccharides isolated from fauna and flora ' 'emerge as complementary strategies for treating coronavirus infection. The review objective ' 'is to cover and analyze the specific role of polysaccharides and lectins and their synergy in ' 'the fight against this deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus. For this purpose, a primary literature search ' 'was conducted on Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Sciences using relevant keywords like ' '“SARS-CoV-2 Variants”; “Antiviral Strategies”; “Antiviral Polysaccharides”; “Antiviral ' 'Lectins”; and “Synergistic effect”. The results demonstrate that lectins and polysaccharides ' 'exhibit antiviral activities against SARS-CoV-2 via mechanisms related to binding and steric ' 'blocking, the binding of glycan-based decoys, chemical reactions, virus particle disruption ' 'strategies, and steric blocking for competitive inhibition to block SARS-CoV-2 and its ' 'variants’ entry. In addition, this review analyzes the rationale behind combining ' 'polysaccharides and lectins, emphasizing complementary mechanisms of action. By ' 'simultaneously targeting multiple stages of the viral life cycle, this dual strategy aims to ' 'comprehensively inhibit viral propagation and enhance the durability of antiviral strategies ' 'over time.</jats:p>', 'DOI': '10.3390/microbiolres15020035', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 4, 9]], 'date-time': '2024-04-09T14:08:50Z', 'timestamp': 1712671730000}, 'page': '525-549', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Polysaccharides and Lectins: A Natural Complementary Approach against the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic', 'prefix': '10.3390', 'volume': '15', 'author': [ { 'given': 'Radu', 'family': 'Lefter', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Biomedical Research Center, Romanian Academy, Iași Branch, 8th ' 'Carol I Avenue, 700506 Iași, Romania'}]}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0137-105X', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Prairna', 'family': 'Balyan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai, Vidyanagari, ' 'Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098, India'}]}, { 'given': 'Ioana-Miruna', 'family': 'Balmus', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Department of Exact Sciences and Natural Sciences, Institute of ' 'Interdisciplinary Research, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of ' 'Iași, 700057 Iași, Romania'}, { 'name': 'CENEMED Platform for Interdisciplinary Research, Grigore T. 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