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Nasal sprays for treating COVID-19: a scientific note

Chavda et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-023-00463-7
Feb 2023  
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Review of nasal sprays for treatment of COVID-19. Authors note that the nasal epithelium is typically the primary site of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and there may be significant advantages for treatments via the nasal route.
Reviews covering iota-carrageenan for COVID-19 include1-3.
Review covers povidone-iodine and iota-carrageenan.
Chavda et al., 27 Feb 2023, peer-reviewed, 5 authors. Contact: vivek.chavda@lmcp.ac.in, vivek7chavda@gmail.com.
This PaperIota-carragee..All
Nasal sprays for treating COVID-19: a scientific note
Vivek P Chavda, Kajal P Baviskar, Dixa A Vaghela, Shilpa S Raut, Anjali P Bedse
Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-023-00463-7
Clinical management of COVID-19 has been a daunting task. Due to the lack of specific treatment, vaccines have been regarded as the first line of defence. Innate responses and cell-mediated systemic immunity, including serum antibodies, have been the primary focus of practically all studies of the immune response to COVID-19. However, owing to the difficulties encountered by the conventional route, alternative routes for prophylaxis and therapy became the need of the hour. The first site invaded by SARS-CoV-2 is the upper respiratory tract. Nasal vaccines are already in different stages of development. Apart from prophylactic purposes, mucosal immunity can be exploited for therapeutic purposes too. The nasal route for drug delivery offers many advantages over the conventional route. Besides offering a needle-free delivery, they can be selfadministered. They present less logistical burden as there is no need for refrigeration. The present article focuses on various aspects of nasal spray for eliminating COVID-19. Keywords SARS-CoV-2 • Immunity • Nasal route • Nasal vaccine • Nasal spray • Clinical trials • Devices Abbreviations ACE2 Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 CD4 Clusters of differentiation 4 cGMP Guanosine mono phosphate COVID-19 Coronavirus disease-2019 HCoV Human coronavirus HPMC Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose IgG Immunoglobulin G IL-2 Interleukin-2 MERS-CoV Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid NC Nasal cycle NONS Nitric oxide nasal spray RNA Ribonucleic acid SARS-CoV-2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 URTI Upper respiratory tract infection The Post-COVID Era -Advances and Challenges in Pharmacology * Vivek P. Chavda
Author contributions VPC (VPC) prepared the manuscript's backbone and wrote the original draft of the manuscript along with other coauthors. All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. Declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.
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' 'https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac448.', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciac448'}, { 'key': '463_CR108', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2045853', 'DOI': '10.1080/21645515.2022.2045853', 'volume': '18', 'author': 'K Dhama', 'year': '2022', 'unstructured': 'Dhama K, Dhawan M, Tiwari R, Emran TB, Mitra S, Rabaan AA, et al. ' 'COVID-19 intranasal vaccines: current progress, advantages, prospects, ' 'and challenges. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2022;18:2045853. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2022.2045853.', 'journal-title': 'Hum Vaccin Immunother'}, { 'key': '463_CR109', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '82', 'DOI': '10.3390/pharmaceutics10030082', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'E Touitou', 'year': '2018', 'unstructured': 'Touitou E, Natsheh H, Duchi S. Buspirone nanovesicular nasal system for ' 'non-hormonal hot flushes treatment. Pharmaceutics. 2018;10:82. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics10030082.', 'journal-title': 'Pharmaceutics'}, { 'key': '463_CR110', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '101', 'DOI': '10.3109/10611869308996066', 'volume': '1', 'author': 'A Harris', 'year': '1993', 'unstructured': 'Harris A. Review: clinical opportunities provided by the nasal ' 'administration of peptides. J Drug Target. 1993;1:101–16. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3109/10611869308996066.', 'journal-title': 'J Drug Target'}, { 'key': '463_CR111', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '187', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0168-3659(02)00363-2', 'volume': '87', 'author': 'L Illum', 'year': '2003', 'unstructured': 'Illum L. Nasal drug delivery—possibilities, problems and solutions. J ' 'Control Release. 2003;87:187–98. 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' 'https://doi.org/10.1007/s11095-011-0417-6.', 'journal-title': 'Pharm Res'}, { 'key': '463_CR116', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '249', 'DOI': '10.1089/jam.2004.17.249', 'volume': '17', 'author': 'PG Djupesland', 'year': '2004', 'unstructured': 'Djupesland PG, Skretting A, Winderen M, Holand T. Bi-directional nasal ' 'delivery of aerosols can prevent lung deposition. J Aerosol Med. ' '2004;17:249–59. https://doi.org/10.1089/jam.2004.17.249.', 'journal-title': 'J Aerosol Med'}, { 'key': '463_CR117', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '479', 'DOI': '10.1208/s12249-015-0317-x', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'K Berkenfeld', 'year': '2015', 'unstructured': 'Berkenfeld K, Lamprecht A, McConville JT. Devices for dry powder drug ' 'delivery to the lung. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015;16:479–90. 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