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In Vitro Determination of Inhibitory Effects of Humic Substances Complexing Zn and Se on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Replication

Hajdrik et al., Foods, doi:10.3390/foods11050694
Feb 2022  
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In Vitro study of a humic substance containing vitamin C, selemium ions, and zinc ions, showing 50% SARS-CoV-2 inhibition at picomolar concentrations.
9 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin C for COVID-19:
Vitamin C plays a key role in the immune system, supporting the production and function of leukocytes, or white blood cells, which defend against infection and disease, including the production of lymphocytes, which make antibodies, and enhancing phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells ingest and destroy viruses and infected cells. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Preclinical research shows that vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Malla, Đukić, reduces ACE2 levels in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection Zuo. Intracellular levels of vitamin C decline during COVID-19 hospitalization Boerenkamp, suggesting ongoing utilization and depletion of vitamin C. Threonic acid, a metabolite of vitamin C, is lower in mild and severe cases Albóniga, consistent with increased need for and metabolization of vitamin C with moderate infection, but more limited ability to produce threonic acid in severe infection due to depletion or existing lower levels of vitamin C. Symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with a lower frequency of natural killer (NK) cells Graydon, and vitamin C has been shown to improve NK cell numbers and functioning Vojdani.
This study includes zinc, selenium, and vitamin C.
Hajdrik et al., 26 Feb 2022, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
Contact: domokos.mathe@hcemm.eu (corresponding author), h.polett0809@gmail.com, kovacsnoi@hotmail.com, veres.daniel@med.semmelweis-univ.hu, krisztian.szigeti@gmail.com, hegedus.imre1@med.semmelweis-univ.hu, rkbergmann@web.de, palyi.bernadett@nnk.gov.hu, kis.zoltan@nnk.gov.hu, budfer2@gmail.com, kovacstiborjanos@gmail.com.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
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In Vitro Determination of Inhibitory Effects of Humic Substances Complexing Zn and Se on SARS-CoV-2 Virus Replication
Polett Hajdrik, Bernadett Pályi, Zoltán Kis, Noémi Kovács, Dániel Sándor Veres, Krisztián Szigeti, Ferenc Budán, Imre Hegedüs, Tibor Kovács, Ralf Bergmann, Domokos Máthé
Foods, doi:10.3390/foods11050694
1) Background: Humic substances are well-known human nutritional supplement materials and they play an important performance-enhancing role as animal feed additives. For decades, ingredients of humic substances have been proven to carry potent antiviral effects against different viruses. (2) Methods: Here, the antiviral activity of a humic substance containing ascorbic acid, Se − and Zn 2+ ions intended as a nutritional supplement material was investigated against SARS-CoV-2 virus B1.1.7 Variant of Concern ("Alpha Variant") in a VeroE6 cell line. (3) Results: This combination has a significant in vitro antiviral effect at a very low concentration range of its intended active ingredients. (4) Conclusions: Even picomolar concentration ranges of humic substances, Vitamin C and Zn/Se ions in the given composition, were enough to achieve 50% viral replication inhibition in the applied SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibition test.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
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