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Inhibitory effects of specific combination of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants

Goc et al., European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology, doi:10.1556/1886.2021.00022
Jan 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
*, now known with p = 0.000000098 from 67 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
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3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
In Vitro study testing combinations of plant extracts and micronutrients with several variants of SARS-CoV-2. A combination of vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, curcumin, quercetin, resveratrol, theaflavin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract showed the highest inhibition of RBD binding, and also decreased RdRp, furin, and cathepsin L activity.
12 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin C for COVID-19:
Vitamin C has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin C plays a key role in the immune system, supporting the production and function of leukocytes, or white blood cells, which defend against infection and disease, including the production of lymphocytes, which make antibodies, and enhancing phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells ingest and destroy viruses and infected cells. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Malla, Đukić and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing ACE2 levels in a dose-dependent manner Zuo. Intracellular levels of vitamin C decline during COVID-19 hospitalization suggesting ongoing utilization and depletion of vitamin C Boerenkamp. Threonic acid, a metabolite of vitamin C, is lower in mild and severe cases, consistent with increased need for and metabolization of vitamin C with moderate infection, but more limited ability to produce threonic acid in severe infection due to depletion or existing lower levels of vitamin C Albóniga. Symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with a lower frequency of natural killer (NK) cells, and vitamin C has been shown to improve NK cell numbers and functioning Graydon, Vojdani.
Study covers quercetin, curcumin, N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin C.
Goc et al., 21 Jan 2022, peer-reviewed, 5 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Inhibitory effects of specific combination of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants
Anna Goc, Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Vadim Ivanov, Svetlana Ivanova, Matthias Rath
Despite vaccine availability, the global spread of COVID-19 continues, largely facilitated by emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutations. Our earlier research documented that a specific combination of plant-derived compounds can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 binding to its ACE2 receptor and controlling key cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a defined mixture of plant extracts and micronutrients against original SARS-CoV-2 and its Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Kappa, and Mu variants. The composition containing vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, resveratrol, theaflavin, curcumin, quercetin, naringenin, baicalin, and broccoli extract demonstrated a highest efficacy by inhibiting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) binding of SARS-CoV-2 to its cellular ACE2 receptor by 90%. In vitro exposure of test pseudo-typed variants to this formula for 1 h before or simultaneously administrated to human pulmonary cells resulted in up to 60% inhibition in their cellular entry. Additionally, this composition significantly inhibited other cellular mechanisms of viral infectivity, including the activity of viral RdRp, furin, and cathepsin L. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of natural compounds against SARS-CoV-2 including its mutated forms through pleiotropic mechanisms. Our results imply that simultaneous inhibition of multiple mechanisms of viral infection of host cells could be an effective strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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