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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Vitamin C promotes ACE2 degradation and protects against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection

Zuo et al., EMBO reports, doi:10.15252/embr.202256374 (date from preprint)
Jul 2022  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000087 from 70 studies, recognized in 11 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
In Vitro and mouse study showing that vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2. Vitamin C lowered ACE2 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner at a concentration of 1-10mM in both cell and humanized ACE2 mouse models.
13 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin C for COVID-19:
Vitamin C has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin C plays a key role in the immune system, supporting the production and function of leukocytes, or white blood cells, which defend against infection and disease, including the production of lymphocytes, which make antibodies, and enhancing phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells ingest and destroy viruses and infected cells. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Malla, Đukić and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing ACE2 levels in a dose-dependent manner Zuo. Intracellular levels of vitamin C decline during COVID-19 hospitalization suggesting ongoing utilization and depletion of vitamin C Boerenkamp. Threonic acid, a metabolite of vitamin C, is lower in mild and severe cases, consistent with increased need for and metabolization of vitamin C with moderate infection, but more limited ability to produce threonic acid in severe infection due to depletion or existing lower levels of vitamin C Albóniga. Symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with a lower frequency of natural killer (NK) cells, and vitamin C has been shown to improve NK cell numbers and functioning Graydon, Vojdani.
Zuo et al., 15 Jul 2022, China, peer-reviewed, 15 authors. Contact: huizheng@suda.edu.cn (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin CAll
Abstract: bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.14.499651; this version posted July 15, 2022. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under aCC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license. 1 Vitamin C is an efficient natural product for prevention of 2 SARS-CoV-2 infection by targeting ACE2 in both cell and in 3 vivo mouse models 4 5 Yibo Zuo,1,2 Zhijin Zheng,1,2 Yingkang Huang,5 Jiuyi He,1,2 Lichao Zang,4 6 Tengfei Ren,1,2 Xinhua Cao,1,2 Ying Miao,1,2 Yukang Yuan,1,2 Yanli Liu,3 Feng 7 Ma,5 Sheng Tian,3 Jianfeng Dai,1,2 Qiang Ding,6 Hui Zheng1,2,7,* 8 9 1 International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Institutes of Biology and Medical 10 Sciences, Suzhou 11 2 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Suzhou 12 3 College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Suzhou 13 4 The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 14 Soochow University, Jiangsu 215123, China 15 5 16 of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 10005; Suzhou 17 Institute of Systems Medicine, Jiangsu 215123, China 18 6 19 Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China 20 7 21 *Correspondence: huizheng@suda.edu.cn CAMS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology Regulatory Elements, Chinese Academy Center for Infectious Disease Research, School of Medicine, Beijing Advanced Lead contact 22 23 24 1 bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.14.499651; this version posted July 15, 2022. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under aCC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license. 25 SUMMARY 26 ACE2 is a major receptor for cell entry of SARS-CoV-2. Despite advances in 27 targeting ACE2 to inhibit SARS-CoV-2's binding, how to efficiently and flexibly 28 control ACE2 levels for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection has not been 29 explored. Here, we revealed Vitamin C (VitC) administration as an effective 30 strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. VitC reduced ACE2 protein levels in 31 a dose-dependent manner, while partial reduction of ACE2 can greatly restrict 32 SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies uncovered that USP50 is a crucial 33 regulator of ACE2 protein levels, and VitC blocks the USP50-ACE2 interaction, 34 thus promoting K48-linked polyubiquitination at Lys788 and degradation of 35 ACE2, without disrupting ACE2 transcriptional expression. Importantly, VitC 36 administration reduced host ACE2 and largely blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection 37 in mice. This study identified an in vivo ACE2 balance controlled by both 38 USP50 and an essential nutrient VitC, and revealed a critical role and 39 application of VitC in daily protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. 40 41 Highlights 42 VitC reduces ACE2 protein levels in a dose-dependent manner 43 VitC and USP50 regulate K48-linked ubiquitination at Lys788 of ACE2 44 VitC blocks the interaction between USP50 and ACE2 45 VitC administration lowers host ACE2 and prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection 46 in vivo 47 48 2 bioRxiv preprint doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.14.499651; this version posted July 15, 2022. The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not certified by..
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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