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New findings on ligand series used as SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors within the frameworks of molecular docking, molecular quantum similarity and chemical reactivity indices

Morales-Bayuelo et al., F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.123550.3
Dec 2023  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
7th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000098 from 67 studies, recognized in 10 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
In Silico analysis showing that vitamin C can stably bind within the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase binding pocket. Notable stabilizing interactions were seen between vitamin C and residue lysine 621, similar to the antiviral remdesivir.
12 preclinical studies support the efficacy of vitamin C for COVID-19:
Vitamin C has been identified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as having sufficient evidence for a causal relationship between intake and optimal immune system function EFSA, Galmés, Galmés (B). Vitamin C plays a key role in the immune system, supporting the production and function of leukocytes, or white blood cells, which defend against infection and disease, including the production of lymphocytes, which make antibodies, and enhancing phagocytosis, the process by which immune system cells ingest and destroy viruses and infected cells. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Malla, Đukić and inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing ACE2 levels in a dose-dependent manner Zuo. Intracellular levels of vitamin C decline during COVID-19 hospitalization suggesting ongoing utilization and depletion of vitamin C Boerenkamp. Threonic acid, a metabolite of vitamin C, is lower in mild and severe cases, consistent with increased need for and metabolization of vitamin C with moderate infection, but more limited ability to produce threonic acid in severe infection due to depletion or existing lower levels of vitamin C Albóniga. Symptomatic COVID-19 is associated with a lower frequency of natural killer (NK) cells, and vitamin C has been shown to improve NK cell numbers and functioning Graydon, Vojdani.
Study covers vitamin D and vitamin C.
Morales-Bayuelo et al., 11 Dec 2023, peer-reviewed, 2 authors. Contact: amorales@unisinucartagena.edu.co.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperVitamin CAll
New findings on ligand series used as SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors within the frameworks of molecular docking, molecular quantum similarity and chemical reactivity indices
Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo, Jesús Sánchez-Márquez
F1000Research, doi:10.12688/f1000research.123550.1
Background The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 virus causes an infectious illness named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus from the Betacoronavirus genus. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has an important role in the viral life cycle and its active site is a very accessible region, thus a potential therapeutic approach may be to target this region to study the inhibition of viral replication. Various preexisting drugs have been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 and the use of existing antiviral agents may reduce the time and cost of new drug discoveries, but the efficacy of these drugs is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate a number of ligands used as SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors to determine the suitability of them for potential COVID-19 treatment. Methods In this study, we selected a series of ligands used as SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors such as: abacavir, acyclovir, amprenavir, ascorbic acid vitamin C, azithromycin, baloxavir, boceprevir, cholecalciferol vitamin D, cidofovir, edoxudine, emtricitabine, hydroxychloroquine and
Open Peer Review Is the study design appropriate and is the work technically sound? Yes Are sufficient details of methods and provided to allow replication by others? Yes If applicable, is the statistical analysis and its interpretation appropriate? I cannot comment. A qualified statistician is required. Are all the source data underlying the results available to ensure full reproducibility? Yes Are the conclusions drawn adequately supported by the results? Partly Competing Interests: No competing interests were disclosed. Reviewer Expertise: Computational chemistry; DFT; Nanotechnology; Docking simulation I confirm that I have read this submission and believe that I have an appropriate level of expertise to confirm that it is of an acceptable scientific standard, however I have significant reservations, as outlined above. Author Response 17 Jul 2023 Alejandro Morales-Bayuelo 1. What are the novelties of the manuscript? What's new in this manuscript compared to similar papers? Answer: There is currently no effective treatment for Covid-19. Therefore, there are a series of drugs such as those listed in this article that have been used for the treatment of this disease, however they have not been associated as solutions for covid-19. That is why carrying out studies that show that the drugs used are directly related to the Covid-19 proteins is pertinent. 2. The introduction section should be written in a higher quality way, i.e. more up-to-date references. The..
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