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Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin C and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 129, 138, 143, 148), antioxidant function of lutein (ID 146), maintenance of vision (ID 141, 142), collagen formation (ID 130, 131, 136, 137, 149), function of the nervous system (ID 133), function of the immune system (ID 134), function of the immune system during and after extreme physical exercise (ID 144), non-haem iron absorption (ID 132, 147), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 135), and relief in case of irritation in the upper respiratory tract (ID 1714, 1715) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

EFSA, EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1226
Oct 2009  
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Vitamin C for COVID-19
6th treatment shown to reduce risk in September 2020
 
*, now known with p = 0.000000038 from 71 studies, recognized in 12 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
European Food Safety Administration review concluding that there is a causal relationship between the intake of vitamin C and immune system function.
EFSA et al., 1 Oct 2009, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
This PaperVitamin CAll
Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin C and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 129, 138, 143, 148), antioxidant function of lutein (ID 146), maintenance of vision (ID 141, 142), collagen
Jean-Louis Bresson, Albert Flynn, Marina Heinonen, Karin Hulshof, Hannu Korhonen, Pagona Lagiou, Martinus Løvik, Rosangela Marchelli, Ambroise Martin, Bevan Moseley, Hildegard Przyrembel, Seppo Salminen, J J ) Strain, Stephan Strobel, Inge Tetens, Henk Van Den Berg, Hendrik Van Loveren, Hans Verhagen
EFSA Journal, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1226
extreme physical exercise (ID 144), non-haem iron absorption (ID 132, 147), energyyielding metabolism (ID 135), and relief in case of irritation
APPENDICES APPENDIX A BACKGROUND AND TERMS OF REFERENCE AS PROVIDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION The Regulation 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods 7 (hereinafter "the Regulation") entered into force on 19 th January 2007. Article 13 of the Regulation foresees that the Commission shall adopt a Community list of permitted health claims other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and health. This Community list shall be adopted through the Regulatory Committee procedure and following consultation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Health claims are defined as "any claim that states, suggests or implies that a relationship exists between a food category, a food or one of its constituents and health". In accordance with Article 13 (1) health claims other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and health are health claims describing or referring to: a) the role of a nutrient or other substance in growth, development and the functions of the body; or b) psychological and behavioural functions; or c) without prejudice to Directive 96/8/EC, slimming or weight-control or a reduction in the sense of hunger or an increase in the sense of satiety or to the reduction of the available energy from the diet. To be included in the Community list of permitted health claims, the claims shall be: (i) based on generally accepted scientific evidence; and (ii)..
References
Badham, Zimmermann, Kraemer, The Guidebook Nutritional Anaemia
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Bjelakovic, Nikolova, Gluud, Simonetti, Gluud, Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases, Cochrane database of systematic reviews
Buzina-Suboticanec, Buzina, Stavljenic, Farley, Haller et al., Ageing, nutritional status and immune response, Int J Vitam Nutr Res
Chavance, Herbeth, Fournier, Janot, Vernhes, Vitamin status, immunity and infections in an elderly population, Eur J Clin Nutr
Chiu, Nutritional antioxidants and age-related cataract and maculopathy, Exp Eye Res
Delafuente, Prendergast, Modigh, Immunologic modulation by vitamin C in the elderly, Int J Immunopharmacol
Douglas, Chalker, Treacy, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Douglas, Hemila, Souza, Chalker, Treacy, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Engelhart, Geerlings, Ruitenberg, Van Swieten, Hofman et al., Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease, JAMA
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Grundman, Delaney, Antioxidant strategies for Alzheimer's disease, Proc Nutr Soc
Hemila, Douglas, Chalker, Treacy, Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold, Cochrane Database Syst Rev
Heuser, Vojdani, Enhancement of natural killer cell activity and T and B cell function by buffered vitamin C in patients exposed to toxic chemicals: the role of protein kinase-C, Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
Jacob, Kelley, Pianalto, Swendseid, Henning et al., Immunocompetence and oxidant defense during ascorbate depletion of healthy men, Am J Clin Nutr
Kennes, Dumont, Brohee, Hubert, Neve, Effect of vitamin C supplements on cellmediated immunity in old people, Gerontology
Levin, Katz, Padayatty, Vitamin C. In: Modern nutrition in health and disease
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Nieman, Peters, Henson, Nevines, Thompson, Influence of vitamin C supplementation on cytokine changes following an ultramarathon, J Interferon Cytokine Res
Ortega, Requejo, Andres, Lopez-Sobaler, Quintas et al., Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people, Am J Clin Nutr
Ramakrishnan, Prevalence of Micronutrient Malnutrition Worldwide, Nutrition Reviews
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Tanumihardjo, Li, Dosti, Lutein absorption is facilitated with cosupplementation of ascorbic acid in young adults, J Am Diet Assoc
Tauler, Aguilo, Gimeno, Noguera, Agusti et al., Differential response of lymphocytes and neutrophils to high intensity physical activity and to vitamin C diet supplementation, Free Radic Res
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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