Possible Impact of Vitamin D Status and Supplementation on SARS-CoV-2 Infection Risk and COVID-19 Symptoms in a Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
De Nicolò et al.
, Possible Impact of Vitamin D Status and Supplementation on SARS-CoV-2 Infection Risk and COVID-19 Symptoms in..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15010169
Prospective study of 106 IBD patients in Italy, showing lower risk of IgG positivity with vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL were associated with a higher probability of symptomatic cases.
risk of IgG positive, 88.4% lower, OR 0.12, p = 0.002, treatment 43, control 63, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
De Nicolò et al., 29 Dec 2022, prospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period January 2021 - April 2021, dosage not specified.
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Possible Impact of Vitamin D Status and Supplementation on
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Risk and COVID-19 Symptoms in a
Cohort of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Amedeo De Nicolò 1,*,†, Jessica Cusato 1,†, Cristina Bezzio 2, Simone Saibeni 2, Marta Vernero 3, Michela Disabato 3,
Gian Paolo Caviglia 3, Alice Ianniello 1, Alessandra Manca 1, Antonio D’Avolio 1,‡
and Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone 3,‡
Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenetics, Department of Medical Sciences,
University of Turin, 10149 Turin, Italy
2 Gastroenterology Unit, Rho Hospital, ASST Rhodense, 20017 Milan, Italy
3 Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy
* Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +39-0114393867
† These authors contributed equally to this work.
‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.
Citation: De Nicolò, A.; Cusato, J.;
Bezzio, C.; Saibeni, S.; Vernero, M.;
Disabato, M.; Caviglia, G.P.;
Ianniello, A.; Manca, A.; D’Avolio,
A.; et al. Possible Impact of
Vitamin D Status and
Supplementation on SARS-CoV-2
Infection Risk and COVID-19
Symptoms in a Cohort of Patients
with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Nutrients 2023, 15, 169. https://
Abstract: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic represents a global health challenge,
particularly considering concomitant diseases. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) can
be considered a population at risk. On the other hand, the risk of developing IBD and COVID-19
have both been described as modulated by vitamin D (VD) levels. In this work, a cohort of 106 adult
patients affected by IBD was prospectively enrolled, during the second wave of the pandemic in
Italy. In these patients, VD plasma levels, demographic, and clinical characteristics were tested for
a correlation/an association with the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the study period (antispike IgG positivity) and the severity of COVID-19 symptoms. By multivariate logistic regression
analysis, VD supplementation (Odds Ratio; OR 0.116, p = 0.002), therapy with monoclonal
antibodies (OR 0.227, p = 0.007), and the use of mesalazine (OR 2.968, p = 0.046) were found to be
independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Moreover, hypertension was associated with
severe disease (p = 0.019), while a VD level higher than 30 ng/mL (p = 0.031, OR 0.078) was associated
with asymptomatic infection. No interplay between IBD activity and COVID-19 risk of infection or
symptoms was observed. These results confirm the importance of VD levels in defining the risk of
COVID-19 and give encouraging data about the safety of maintaining immunomodulatory
treatments for IBD during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: vitamin D; cholecalciferol; IBD; Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; monoclonal
antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Academic Editor: Hongbing Sun
Received: 7 November 2022
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