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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19

Stavropoulou et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.614986
Dec 2020  
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Probiotics for COVID-19
17th treatment shown to reduce risk in March 2021
 
*, now with p = 0.0000013 from 26 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 77 treatments. c19early.org
Review of the potential benefits of probiotics for COVID-19.
Reviews covering probiotics for COVID-19 include1-10.
Stavropoulou et al., 15 Dec 2020, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
This PaperProbioticsAll
Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19
Elisavet Stavropoulou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou
Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.614986
In our previously published work, we support that probiotics could be used as an adjunctive treatment against COVID-19 (1) and other colleagues have also focused their attention on this subject (2, 3). Probiotics boost the immune system, enhance the mucosal barrier function and inhibit bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium by being in a direct antagonism with pathogenic bacteria (1). The gut-lung axis is involved in the pathogenicity of bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota boosts the alveolar macrophage activity, thus having a protective role in host defense against pneumonia (1). Along these lines, current clinical evidence connects gut, lung, and brain as an entity with communication mediated through complex neural, immunologic inflammatory, and neuroendocrine networks, the so called gut-brain-lung axis (4). There are indications in animals and humans that intestinal microbiota provides bacteria to the lungs, as abundance of Bacteroides sp. is observed in the lung following sepsis (5). Moreover, following sepsis, neurologic and cognitive outcomes are observed (4, 6). Without any doubt, the importance of the gut microbiome is stated (1). The composition of the gut microbiome may be used as a predictive tool of disease development and infection severity (1, 7, 8) . Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are of major importance for the developing of the innate immune response (9). Probiotics regulate the innate immune cells via interactions between cell wall components or metabolites with host PRRs (10). Yet, probiotic bacteria are activating Dendritic Cells (DCs) and macrophages boosting adaptive immune responses (B cell differentiation, T cell homing, Th17 cell stimulation) (11). The expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) is inflamed in the lung cells during inflammation processes. In this context, macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils are responding by increasing levels of PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular patterns) and DAMPs (Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) (12). Besides that, the PRRs recognize DAMPs (Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) as danger signals emitted by damaged or necrotic host cells which stimulate the pro-inflammatory response (6). Intruder's viral pathogens show a distinctive particular image of PAMPs giving a specific immune response (9). PAMPs are nucleic acids or glycoproteins indispensable for the pathogens' survival. PAMPs should be identified by PRRs leading to the expression of co-stimulatory molecules such as cytokines and chemokines which, in their turn, should activate the antigen presenting cells and specific adaptive immunity by eliminating pathogens (6, 13). It is of note that the most studied PRRs for pathogens' recognition are TLRs (Toll Like Receptors) which are membrane glycoproteins (12). The expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) is inflamed in the lung cells during inflammation processes. TLR4 signaling in pulmonary..
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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lactis secreting an anti-TNF nanobody ' 'demonstrate efficacy in chronic colitis', 'volume': '3', 'author': 'Vandenbroucke', 'year': '2010', 'journal-title': 'Mucosal Immunol.'}, { 'key': 'B44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '166', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.virol.2014.07.011', 'article-title': 'Immunoprotection against influenza virus H9N2 by the oral ' 'administration of recombinant Lactobacillus plantarumNC8 expressing ' 'hemagglutinin in BALB/c mice', 'volume': '65', 'author': 'Shi', 'year': '2014', 'journal-title': 'Virology'}, { 'key': 'B45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '46', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.virusres.2015.09.005', 'article-title': 'Lactobacillus plantarum vaccine vector expressing hemagglutinin ' 'provides protection against H9N2 challenge infection', 'volume': '211', 'author': 'Shi', 'year': '2016', 'journal-title': 'Virus Res.'}, { 'key': 'B46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '9', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.11.025', 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'volume': '9', 'author': 'Stavropoulou', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol.'}], 'container-title': 'Frontiers in Nutrition', 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2020.614986/full', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 1, 10]], 'date-time': '2021-01-10T18:20:33Z', 'timestamp': 1610302833000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnut.2020.614986/full'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 15]]}, 'references-count': 49, 'alternative-id': ['10.3389/fnut.2020.614986'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.614986', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2296-861X'], 'subject': [], 'container-title-short': 'Front. Nutr.', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2020, 12, 15]]}}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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