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Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19
Stavropoulou et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.614986 (Review)
Stavropoulou et al., Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19, Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2020.614986 (Review)
Dec 2020   Source   PDF  
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Review of the potential benefits of probiotics for COVID-19.
Stavropoulou et al., 15 Dec 2020, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
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Abstract: OPINION published: 15 December 2020 doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.614986 Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19 Elisavet Stavropoulou 1,2,3* and Eugenia Bezirtzoglou 4 1 Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2 Service of Infectious Diseases, Central Institute of Valais Hospitals, Sion, Switzerland, 3 Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4 Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece Keywords: COVID-19, probiotics, immunology, coronaviruses (CoV), vanA, adjuvant, therapy, protein E Edited by: Zhaojun Wei, Hefei University of Technology, China Reviewed by: Kiran Thakur, Hefei University of Technology, China *Correspondence: Elisavet Stavropoulou Specialty section: This article was submitted to Nutrition and Food Science Technology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition Received: 07 October 2020 Accepted: 24 November 2020 Published: 15 December 2020 Citation: Stavropoulou E and Bezirtzoglou E (2020) Probiotics as a Weapon in the Fight Against COVID-19. Front. Nutr. 7:614986. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2020.614986 Frontiers in Nutrition | In our previously published work, we support that probiotics could be used as an adjunctive treatment against COVID-19 (1) and other colleagues have also focused their attention on this subject (2, 3). Probiotics boost the immune system, enhance the mucosal barrier function and inhibit bacterial adherence and invasion capacity in the intestinal epithelium by being in a direct antagonism with pathogenic bacteria (1). The gut-lung axis is involved in the pathogenicity of bacterial and viral infections, as the intestinal microbiota boosts the alveolar macrophage activity, thus having a protective role in host defense against pneumonia (1). Along these lines, current clinical evidence connects gut, lung, and brain as an entity with communication mediated through complex neural, immunologic inflammatory, and neuroendocrine networks, the so called gut-brain-lung axis (4). There are indications in animals and humans that intestinal microbiota provides bacteria to the lungs, as abundance of Bacteroides sp. is observed in the lung following sepsis (5). Moreover, following sepsis, neurologic and cognitive outcomes are observed (4, 6). Without any doubt, the importance of the gut microbiome is stated (1). The composition of the gut microbiome may be used as a predictive tool of disease development and infection severity (1, 7, 8). Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are of major importance for the developing of the innate immune response (9). Probiotics regulate the innate immune cells via interactions between cell wall components or metabolites with host PRRs (10). Yet, probiotic bacteria are activating Dendritic Cells (DCs) and macrophages boosting adaptive immune responses (B cell differentiation, T cell homing, Th17 cell stimulation) (11). The expression of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) is inflamed in the lung cells during inflammation processes. In this context, macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils are responding by increasing levels of PAMPs (Pathogen-Associated Molecular patterns) and DAMPs (Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) (12). Besides that, the PRRs recognize DAMPs (Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns) as danger signals..
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