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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 95% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission 81% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Sanecka et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 171 patients in Ireland (Jun - Dec 2021) Lower mortality (p=0.029) and ICU admission (p=0.05) Sanecka et al., Nutrients, June 2023 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Hospital Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 Pneumonia: The Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Vitamin D Status

Sanecka et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15132976
Jun 2023  
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Prospective study of 171 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Ireland, showing significantly lower mortality and ICU admission with sufficient vitamin D levels among unvaccinated patients. There were no significant differences for vaccinated patients. Authors note that high vitamin D levels or recent vaccination were associated with lower mortality. Adjusted results are only reported for unvaccinated patients and mortality/ICU admission, where results were significant. More vaccinated patients had sufficient vitamin D levels despite the group being older (mean age 69 vs. 46). There may be a link based on health conscientiousness between vaccination, vitamin D supplementation, and other measures and lifestyle factors that reduce risk.
risk of death, 94.9% lower, RR 0.05, p = 0.03, high D levels (≥50nmol/L) 1 of 39 (2.6%), low D levels (<30nmol/L) 4 of 18 (22.2%), NNT 5.1, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥50nmol/L), odds ratio converted to relative risk, unvaccinated patients, multivariable.
risk of ICU admission, 80.9% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.05, high D levels (≥50nmol/L) 3 of 39 (7.7%), low D levels (<30nmol/L) 5 of 18 (27.8%), NNT 5.0, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥50nmol/L), odds ratio converted to relative risk, unvaccinated patients, multivariable.
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Sanecka et al., 30 Jun 2023, prospective, Ireland, peer-reviewed, 16 authors, study period June 2021 - December 2021.
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Hospital Outcomes in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 Pneumonia: The Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Vitamin D Status
Martyna Sanecka, Modar Youssef, Mohammad Abdulsalam, Syed F Raza, Abdul Qadeer, Julia Ioana, Alya Aldoresi, Syed I Shah, Abdul Al Lawati, Joseph Feely, William P Tormey, Eoghan O’neill, Liam J Cormican, Eoin P Judge, Daniel M A Mccartney, John L Faul
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15132976
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination promises to improve outcomes for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (most notably those with advanced age and at high risk for severe disease). Here, we examine serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and outcomes in both old (>70 years) and young vaccinated (n = 80) and unvaccinated (n = 91) subjects, who were hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia in a single center (Connolly Hospital Dublin). Outcomes included ICU admission and mortality. Serum 25(OH)D levels were categorized as D30 (<30 nmol/L), D40 (30-49.99 nmol/L) and D50 (≥50 nmol/L). In multivariate analyses, D30 was independently associated with ICU admission (OR: 6.87 (95% CI: 1.13-41.85) (p = 0.036)) and mortality (OR: 24.81 (95% CI: 1.57-392.1) (p = 0.023)) in unvaccinated patients, even after adjustment for major confounders including age, sex, obesity and pre-existing diabetes mellitus. While mortality was consistently higher in all categories of patients over 70 years of age, the highest observed mortality rate of 50%, seen in patients over 70 years with a low vitamin D state (D30), appeared to be almost completely corrected by either vaccination, or having a higher vitamin D state, i.e., mortality was 14% for vaccinated patients over 70 years with D30 and 16% for unvaccinated patients over 70 years with a 25(OH)D level greater than 30 nmol/L. We observe that high mortality from COVID-19 pneumonia occurs in older patients, especially those who are unvaccinated or have a low vitamin D state. Recent vaccination or having a high vitamin D status are both associated with reduced mortality, although these effects do not fully mitigate the mortality risk associated with advanced age.
Author Contributions: M.S., data processing, data analysis, data interpretation, manuscript drafts; J.L.F. and D.M.A.M., study design, data interpretation, manuscript drafts, data analysis; M.Y., M.A., S.F.R., A.Q., J.I., A.A., S.I.S., J.F., W.P.T., E.O., L.J.C., E.P.J. and A.A.L. data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation; J.L.F., study design, data collection, processing, analysis and interpretation, manuscript drafts. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research received no external funding. Institutional Review Board Statement: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and approved by the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of Connolly Hospital Dublin. Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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