Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All vitamin D studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchVitamin DVitamin D (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Severe or critical case 85% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Dror et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 253 patients in Israel Lower severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.0013) Dror et al., PLOS ONE, June 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness

Dror et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263069 (date from preprint)
Jun 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provided for severity.
This is the 72nd of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of severe or critical case, 84.8% lower, RR 0.15, p = 0.001, high D levels 109 of 120 (90.8%), low D levels 76 of 133 (57.1%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >40ng/mL vs. <20ng/mL, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Dror et al., 7 Jun 2021, retrospective, Israel, peer-reviewed, 18 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness
Amiel A Dror, Nicole Morozov, Amani Daoud, Yoav Namir, Orly Yakir, Yair Shachar, Mark Lifshitz, Ella Segal, Lior Fisher, Matti Mizrachi, Netanel Eisenbach, Doaa Rayan, Maayan Gruber, Amir Bashkin, Edward Kaykov, Masad Barhoum, Michael Edelstein, Eyal Sela
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263069
Objective Studies have demonstrated a potential correlation between low vitamin D status and both an increased risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and poorer clinical outcomes. This retrospective study examines if, and to what degree, a relationship exists between pre-infection serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and disease severity and mortality due to SARS-CoV-2. Participants The records of individuals admitted between April 7 th , 2020 and February 4 th , 2021 to the Galilee Medical Center (GMC) in Nahariya, Israel, with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) were searched for historical 25(OH)D levels measured 14 to 730 days prior to the positive PCR test. Design Patients admitted to GMC with COVID-19 were categorized according to disease severity and level of 25(OH)D. An association between pre-infection 25(OH)D levels, divided between four categories (deficient, insufficient, adequate, and high-normal), and COVID-19 severity was ascertained utilizing a multivariable regression analysis. To isolate the possible influence of the sinusoidal pattern of seasonal 25(OH)D changes throughout the year, a cosinor model was used. Results Of 1176 patients admitted, 253 had records of a 25(OH)D level prior to COVID-19 infection. A lower vitamin D status was more common in patients with the severe or critical disease (<20 ng/mL [87.4%]) than in individuals with mild or moderate disease (<20 ng/mL [34.3%] p
Abu-Saad, Murad, Lubin, Freedman, Ziv et al., Jews and Arabs in the Same Region in Israel Exhibit Major Differences in Dietary Patterns, The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.3945/jn.112.166611
Al Attia, Ibrahim, The high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and dress style of women in the sunny UAE, Archives of osteoporosis, doi:10.1007/s11657-012-0104-1
Al-Anouti, Mousa, Karras, Grant, Alhalwachi et al., Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE Residents, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680
Bassil, Rahme, Hoteit, Fuleihan, Hypovitaminosis D in the Middle East and North Africa: Prevalence, risk factors and impact on outcomes, Dermato-endocrinology, doi:10.4161/derm.25111
Batieha, Khader, Jaddou, Hyassat, Batieha et al., Vitamin D status in Jordan: dress style and gender discrepancies, Annals of nutrition & metabolism, doi:10.1159/000323097
Bergman, Lindh, Bjo ¨rkhem-Bergman, Lindh, Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065835
Bouillon, Genetic and environmental determinants of vitamin D status, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2810%2960635-6
Chakhtoura, Rahme, Chamoun, El-Hajj Fuleihan, Vitamin D in the Middle East and North Africa, Bone reports, doi:10.1016/j.bonr.2018.03.004
Charoenngam, Holick, Immunologic effects of vitamin d on human health and disease, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12072097
Charoenngam, Shirvani, Reddy, Vodopivec, Apovian et al., Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients, Endocrine practice: official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013
Cozier, Castro-Webb, Hochberg, Rosenberg, Albert et al., Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132
Crowe, Steur, Allen, Appleby, Travis et al., Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study, Public health nutrition, doi:10.1017/S1368980010002454
De Lucena, Da, Santos, De Lima, De et al., Mechanism of inflammatory response in associated comorbidities in COVID-19. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.025
Degerud, Bergen Open Research Archive: Vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease
Degerud, Hoff, Nygård, Strand, Nilsen et al., Cosinor modelling of seasonal variation in 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in cardiovascular patients in Norway, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2015.200
Elkum, Alkayal, Noronha, Ali, Melhem et al., Vitamin D Insufficiency in Arabs and South Asians Positively Associates with Polymorphisms in GC and CYP2R1 Genes, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113102
Evans, Lippman, Shining Light on the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Vitamin D Receptor Checkpoint in Defense of Unregulated Wound Healing, Cell Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.09.007
Grant, Lordan, Vitamin D for COVID-19 on Trial: An Update on Prevention and Therapeutic Application, Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.10.001
Hobbs, Habib, Alromaihi, Idi, Parikh et al., Severe Vitamin D Deficiency in Arab-American Women Living in Dearborn, Michigan, Endocrine Practice, doi:10.4158/EP.15.1.35
Jain, Chaurasia, Sengar, Singh, Mahor et al., Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers, Scientific reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z
Jolliffe, Camargo, Sluyter, Aglipay, Aloia et al., Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, doi:10.1016/S2213-8587%2821%2900051-6
Kara, Ekiz, Ricci, Kara, Chang, Scientific Strabismus" or two related pandemics: coronavirus disease and vitamin D deficiency. The British journal of nutrition, doi:10.1017/S0007114520001749
Kaufman, Niles, Kroll, Bi, Holick, SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252
Levis, Gomez, Jimenez, Veras, Ma et al., Vitamin D Deficiency and Seasonal Variation in an Adult South Florida Population, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/JC.2004-0746
Loucera, Peña-Chilet, Medina, Muñoyerro-Muñiz, Villegas et al., Real world evidence of calcifediol or vitamin D prescription and mortality rate of COVID-19 in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized Andalusian patients, Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-02701-5
Ma, Nguyen, Yue, Ding, Drew et al., Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/AJCN/NQAB389
Maghbooli, Sahraian, Jamalimoghadamsiahkali, Asadi, Zarei et al., Treatment With 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (Calcifediol) Is Associated With a Reduction in the Blood Neutrophilto-Lymphocyte Ratio Marker of Disease Severity in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Pilot Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blinded Clinical Trial, Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.09.016
Major, Graubard, Dodd, Iwan, Alexander et al., Variability and Reproducibility of Circulating Vitamin D in a Nationwide U.S. Population, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1210/jc.2012-2643
Mark, Weldon, James, Grey, Bacon et al., The effects of seasonal variation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D on diagnosis of vitamin D insufficiency, The New Zealand medical journal
Meltzer, Best, Zhang, Vokes, Arora et al., Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results, JAMA network open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722
Merzon, Tworowski, Gorohovski, Vinker, Cohen et al., Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID-19 infection: an Israeli population-based study, FEBS Journal, doi:10.1111/febs.15495
Mishal, Effects of different dress styles on vitamin D levels in healthy young Jordanian women. Osteoporosis international: a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, doi:10.1007/s001980170021
Mora, Iwata, Von Andrian, Vitamin effects on the immune system: Vitamins A and D take centre stage, Nature Reviews Immunology, doi:10.1038/nri2378
Muhsen, Green, Soskolne, Neumark, Inequalities in non-communicable diseases between the major population groups in Israel: achievements and challenges, The Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736%2817%2930574-3
Oren, Shapira, Agmon-Levin, Kivity, Zafrir et al., Vitamin D insufficiency in a sunny environment: A demographic and seasonal analysis, The Israel Medical Association journal
Prietl, Treiber, Pieber, Amrein, Vitamin D and immune function, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu5072502
Rawat, Roy, Maitra, Shankar, Khanna et al., Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome, doi:10.1016/J.DSX.2021.102189
Rhodes, Subramanian, Laird, Griffin, Kenny, Perspective: Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity-plausibly linked by latitude, ethnicity, impacts on cytokines, ACE2 and thrombosis, Journal of internal medicine, doi:10.1111/joim.13149
Rubin, Sorting Out Whether Vitamin D Deficiency Raises COVID-19 Risk, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.24127
Sachs, Shoben, Levin, Robinson-Cohen, Hoofnagle et al., Estimating mean annual 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations from single measurements: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.054502
Shoben, Kestenbaum, Levin, Hoofnagle, Psaty et al., Seasonal Variation in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in the Cardiovascular Health Study, American Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/aje/kwr258
Smolders, Van Den Ouweland, Geven, Pickkers, Kox, Letter to the Editor: Vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19: Mixing up cause and consequence, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154434
Wang, Jacobs, Mccullough, Rodriguez, Thun et al., Comparing Methods for Accounting for Seasonal Variability in a Biomarker When Only a Single Sample Is Available: Insights From Simulations Based on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, American Journal of Epidemiology, doi:10.1093/aje/kwp086
Woitge, Knothe, Witte, Schmidt-Gayk, Ziegler et al., Circannual Rhythms and Interactions of Vitamin D Metabolites, Parathyroid Hormone, and Biochemical Markers of Skeletal Homeostasis: A Prospective Study, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, doi:10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.12.2443
Yancy, COVID-19 and African Americans, JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548
Zhao, Meng, Kumar, Wu, Huang et al., The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: A systemic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.25889
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop