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Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women

Cozier et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132
Jul 2021  
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Case 39% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Cozier et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Prospective study of 1,974 patients in the USA Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.035) c19early.org Cozier et al., PLoS ONE, July 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,500+ studies for 81 treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 infection in the Black Women's Health Study, showing higher risk of infection for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were from 3-7 years before infection. Levels at the time of infection may differ, which may reduce the size of the effect observed.
This is the 81st of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
risk of case, 38.6% lower, RR 0.61, p = 0.04, high D levels 94 of 1,601 (5.9%), low D levels 33 of 373 (8.8%), NNT 34, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL, multivariable.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Cozier et al., 27 Jul 2021, prospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women
Yvette C Cozier, Nelsy Castro-Webb, Natasha S Hochberg, Lynn Rosenberg, Michelle A Albert, Julie R Palmer
PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132
Objective Limited evidence suggests that higher levels of serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) protect against SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) infection. Black women commonly experience 25(OH)D insufficiency and are overrepresented among COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to COVID-19 infection among participants in the Black Women's Health Study. Methods Since 1995, the Black Women's Health Study has followed 59,000 U.S. Black women through biennial mailed or online questionnaires. Over 13,000 study participants provided a blood sample in 2013-2017. 25(OH)D assays were performed in a certified national laboratory shortly after collection of the samples. In 2020, participants who had completed the online version of the 2019 biennial health questionnaire were invited to complete a supplemental online questionnaire assessing their experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including whether they had been tested for COVID-19 infection and the result of the test. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of 25(OH)D level with COVID-19 positivity, adjusting for age, number of people living in the household, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and other potential confounders. Results Among 5,081 eligible participants whose blood sample had been assayed for 25(OH)D, 1,974 reported having had a COVID-19 test in 2020. Relative to women with 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL (75 nmol/l) or more, multivariable-adjusted ORs for COVID-19 infection in
Author Contributions
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Black women commonly experience 25(OH)D ' 'insufficiency and are overrepresented among COVID-19 cases. We conducted a prospective ' 'analysis of serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to COVID-19 infection among participants in the ' 'Black Women’s Health Study.</jats:p>\n' '</jats:sec>\n' '<jats:sec id="sec002">\n' '<jats:title>Methods</jats:title>\n' '<jats:p>Since 1995, the Black Women’s Health Study has followed 59,000 U.S. Black women ' 'through biennial mailed or online questionnaires. Over 13,000 study participants provided a ' 'blood sample in 2013–2017. 25(OH)D assays were performed in a certified national laboratory ' 'shortly after collection of the samples. In 2020, participants who had completed the online ' 'version of the 2019 biennial health questionnaire were invited to complete a supplemental ' 'online questionnaire assessing their experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including ' 'whether they had been tested for COVID-19 infection and the result of the test. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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