Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE Residents
Al-Anouti et al.
, Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680
Retrospective 646 COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing significant associations between genetic determinants of vitamin D metabolism and COVID-19 severity, and an association with vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity. Patients in this study overlap with [AlSafar]
risk of severe case, 68.1% lower, RR 0.32, p < 0.001, high D levels 56 of 146 (38.4%), low D levels 52 of 142 (36.6%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels, odds ratio converted to relative risk, <12ng/ml vs. >20ng/ml.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Al-Anouti et al., 20 Oct 2021, retrospective, United Arab Emirates, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D
Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among
Fatme Al-Anouti 1,† , Mira Mousa 2,3 , Spyridon N. Karras 4 , William B. Grant 5 , Zainab Alhalwachi 3 ,
Laila Abdel-Wareth 6,7 , Maimunah Uddin 8 , Nawal Alkaabi 8 , Guan K. Tay 3,9,10 , Bassam Mahboub 11
and Habiba AlSafar 3,12, *,†
Citation: Al-Anouti, F.; Mousa, M.;
Karras, S.N.; Grant, W.B.; Alhalwachi,
Z.; Abdel-Wareth, L.; Uddin, M.;
Alkaabi, N.; Tay, G.K.; Mahboub, B.;
et al. Associations between Genetic
Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism
Department of Health Sciences, College of Natural and Health Sciences, Zayed University,
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Fatme.AlAnouti@zu.ac.ae
Nuffield Department of Women’s and Reproductive Health, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 4BH, UK;
Center for Biotechnology, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;
email@example.com (Z.A.); firstname.lastname@example.org (G.K.T.)
National Scholarship Foundation, 55535 Thessaloniki, Greece; email@example.com
Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA;
National Reference Laboratory, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; WarethL@ClevelandClinicAbuDhabi.ae
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates;
firstname.lastname@example.org (M.U.); email@example.com (N.A.)
Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
Dubai Health Authority, Rashid Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and
Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Pathway and Severity of COVID-19
among UAE Residents. Nutrients
2021, 13, 3680. https://doi.org/
Academic Editor: Andrea Fabbri
Received: 30 September 2021
Accepted: 15 October 2021
Published: 20 October 2021
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Copyright: © 2021 by the authors.
Abstract: Vitamin D has many effects on cells in the immune system. Many studies have linked low
vitamin D status with severity of COVID-19. Genetic variants involved in vitamin D metabolism have
been implicated as potential risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes. This study investigated how
genetic variations in humans affected the clinical presentation of COVID-19. In total, 646 patients
with SARS-CoV-2 infection were divided into two groups: noncritical COVID-19 (n = 453; 70.12%)
and a critical group (n = 193; 29.87%). Genotype data on the GC, NADSYN1, VDR, and CYP2R1
genes along with data on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were compiled in patients admitted to
a major hospital in the United Arab Emirates between April 2020 and January 2021. We identified
12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the critical COVID-19 condition: rs59241277,
rs113574864, rs182901986, rs60349934, and rs113876500; rs4944076, rs4944997, rs4944998, rs4944979,
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