Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All diet studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchDietDiet (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Relevance of Mediterranean diet as a nutritional strategy in diminishing COVID-19 risk: A systematic review

Halim et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597, PROSPERO CRD42023451794
Mar 2024  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Diet for COVID-19
22nd treatment shown to reduce risk in June 2021
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 28 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Review of the association between the Mediterranean diet and COVID-19 risk, symptoms, and severity. Authors conducted a systematic review of 6 observational studies with 55,489 total participants. Four studies found a significant association between higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet and reduced COVID-19 risk, while one study found a non-significant result. One study reported a significant association between higher Mediterranean diet adherence and reduced COVID-19 symptoms, while three studies found non-significant results. One study found higher Mediterranean diet adherence significantly reduced the likelihood of severe COVID-19, however two studies reported inconclusive findings. Authors suggest high adherence to the Mediterranean diet is likely protective against COVID-19 infection, with unclear benefits for symptoms and severity.
See Kahleova et al. for another review covering diet for COVID-19.
Halim et al., 25 Mar 2024, Indonesia, preprint, 7 authors, trial PROSPERO CRD42023451794. Contact: andremarolop@usu.ac.id.
This PaperDietAll
Relevance of Mediterranean diet as a nutritional strategy in diminishing COVID-19 risk: A systematic review
Ceria Halim, Miranda Howen, Athirah Amirah Nabilah Binti Fitrisubroto, Timotius Pratama, Indah Ramadhani Harahap, Lacman Jaya Ganesh, Andre Marolop Pangihutan Siahaan
doi:10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597
Background: Mediterranean Diet has been reported to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. These properties are closely associated with the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19. Objective: The present systematic review aimed to determine the association between Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19, COVID-19 symptoms, and COVID-19 severity. Methods: The protocol for this systematic review was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with identification number CRD42023451794. The literature search was conducted through Pubmed, Proquest, and Google Scholar on August 2023. The inclusion criteria were studies with a population of human subjects, reported the association between Mediterranean diet adherence with risk of COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 symptoms, or COVID-19 severity, and full text must be available in English. The exclusion criteria were reviews, editorials, letters, replies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, studies on animals, and duplicates. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed using Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Data was synthesized narratively. Each study was compared and a structured summary was developed. Results: After selection process, 6 articles were included, with a sample size of 55,489 patients. All studies were observational studies and assessed Mediterranean diet adherence using food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), with scoring system varied between each study. Four studies found a significant correlation between increased adherence to Mediterranean Diet and reduced COVID-19 risk, while one study indicated non-significant association. One study reported a significant association between higher adherence to Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19 symptoms, but three studies reported non-significant association. One study found that individuals with higher adherence to Mediterranean Diet had reduced likelihood of developing severe COVID-19, however, two studies yielded inconclusive findings. Limitations: All studies used self-administrated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), which were prone to biased responses, such as recall and estimation bias. Discussion: Lower trends of odds ratios (ORs) were consistently observed in higher Mediterranean diet adherence. In every outcome of the included studies, ORs ranged between 0.06-0.992, however, differing levels of significance were reported in each outcome. Conclusion: Overall analyses suggest that high adherence to Mediterranean Diet is a protective factor against COVID-19, with unclear benefits against COVID-19 symptoms and severity.
Author contributions Conceptualization: Ceria Halim. Data curation: Ceria Halim, Miranda Howen, Athirah Amirah Nabilah binti Fitrisubroto, Timotius Pratama, Indah Ramadhani Harahap, Lacman Jaya Ganesh. Formal analysis: Ceria Halim, Miranda Howen, Athirah Amirah Nabilah binti Fitrisubroto, Timotius Pratama, Indah Ramadhani Harahap, Lacman Jaya Ganesh. Competing interests The authors declare no conflict of interest. References
References
Angelidi, Kokkinos, Katechaki, Mantzoros, Mediterranean diet as a nutritional approach for COVID-19, Metabolism, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154407
Barnett-Page, Thomas, Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: a critical review, BMC Med Res Methodol, doi:10.1186/1471-2288-9-59
Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, Hr, Introduction to Meta-Analysis 1st ed
Calatayud, Calatayud, Gallego, González-Martín, Alguacil, Effects of Mediterranean diet in patients with recurring colds and frequent complications, Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), doi:10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.006
Casas, Sacanella, Estruch, The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases, Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets, doi:10.2174/1871530314666140922153350
Coniglio, Shumskaya, Vassiliou, Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Their Immunomodulatory Properties, Biology, doi:10.3390/biology12020279
De Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Corgosinho, Sanches, Prado, Laviano et al., Dietary recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, Nutr Rev, doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa067
Estruch, Salas-Salvadó, Covas, Corella, Arós, Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease with a Mediterranean Diet Supplemented with Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1800389
Ferro, Pujia, Maurotti, Boragina, Mirarchi et al., Mediterranean Diet a Potential Strategy against SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Narrative Review, Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57121389
Higgins, Thomas, Chandler, Cumpston, Li et al., Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.4
Juárez-Chairez, Meza-Márquez, Márquez-Flores, Jiménez-Martínez, Potential anti-inflammatory effects of legumes: a review, Br J Nutr, doi:10.1017/S0007114522000137
Khoury, Julien, Inverse Association Between the Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19 Risk in Lebanon: A Case-Control Study, Front Nutr, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.707359
Kim, Rebholz, Hegde, Lafiura, Raghavan et al., Plant-based diets, pescatarian diets and COVID-19 severity: a population-based case-control study in six countries, BMJ Nutr Prev Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272
Lucas, Russell, Keast, Molecular mechanisms of inflammation. Antiinflammatory benefits of virgin olive oil and the phenolic compound oleocanthal, Curr Pharm Des, doi:10.2174/138161211795428911
Manjili, Zarei, Habibi, Manjili, COVID-19 as an Acute Inflammatory Disease, J Immunol, doi:10.4049/jimmunol.2000413
Mathur, Kottilil, Immunomodulatory therapies for COVID-19, Front Med, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.921452
Modesti, Reboldi, Cappuccio, Agyemang, Remuzzi et al., Panethnic Differences in Blood Pressure in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147601
Mohajeri, Mohajery, Cicero, Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet Association with Serum Inflammatory Factors Stress Oxidative and Appetite in COVID-19 Patients, Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina59020227
Moore, Fadel, Lane, The effects of consuming a Mediterranean style diet on associated COVID-19 severity biomarkers in obese/overweight adults: A systematic review, Nutr Health, doi:10.1177/02601060221127853
Ouzzani, Hammady, Fedorowicz, Elmagarmid, Rayyan-a web and mobile app for systematic reviews, Syst Rev, doi:10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4
Page, Mckenzie, Bossuyt, Boutron, Hoffmann et al., The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.n71
Page, Mckenzie, Higgins, Tools for assessing risk of reporting biases in studies and syntheses of studies: a systematic review, BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019703
Perez-Araluce, Martínez-González, Gea, Carlos, Components of the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of COVID-19, Front Nutr, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.805533
Ponzo, Pellegrini, Eusebio, Bioletto, Goitre et al., Mediterranean Diet and SARS-COV-2 Infection: Is There Any Association? A Proof-of-Concept Study, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051721
Rahmati, Fatemi, Yon, Lee, Koyanagi et al., The effect of adherence to high-quality dietary pattern on COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.28298
Santos-Buelga, González-Manzano, González-Paramás, Wine, Polyphenols, and Mediterranean Diets. What Else Is There to Say?, Molecules, doi:10.3390/molecules26185537
Seo, Kim, Lee, Park, RoBANS 2: A Revised Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies of Interventions, Korean J Fam Med, doi:10.4082/kjfm.23.0034
Sharma, Castelnuovo, Costanzo, Persichillo, Panzera et al., Habitual adherence to a traditional Mediterranean diet and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a longitudinal analysis, Int J Food Sci Nutr, doi:10.1080/09637486.2023.2212879
Skrajnowska, Brumer, Kankowska, Matysek, Miazio et al., Covid 19: Diet Composition and Health, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13092980
Sterne, Savović, Page, Elbers, Blencowe et al., RoB 2: a revised tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.l4898
Suardi, Cazzaniga, Graci, Dongo, Palestini, Link between Viral Infections, Immune System, Inflammation and Diet, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18052455
Wells, Shea, Connell, Peterson, Welch et al., The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses
Yue, Ma, Accorsi, Ding, Hu et al., Long-term diet and risk of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac219
Zargarzadeh, Vajargah, Ebrahimzadeh, Mousavi, Khodaveisi et al., Higher Adherence to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Is Inversely Associated With Severity of COVID-19 and Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study, Front Med, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.911273
{ 'institution': [{'name': 'medRxiv'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 28]], 'date-time': '2024-03-28T01:22:44Z', 'timestamp': 1711588964839}, 'posted': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 25]]}, 'group-title': 'Nutrition', 'reference-count': 38, 'publisher': 'Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory', 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'accepted': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 25]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Mediterranean ' 'Diet has been reported to possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. These ' 'properties are closely associated with the immunopathogenesis of ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Objective</jats:title><jats:p>The present ' 'systematic review aimed to determine the association between Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19, ' 'COVID-19 symptoms, and COVID-19 ' 'severity.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>The protocol ' 'for this systematic review was registered in International Prospective Register of Systematic ' 'Reviews (PROSPERO) with identification number CRD42023451794. The literature search was ' 'conducted through Pubmed, Proquest, and Google Scholar on August 2023. The inclusion criteria ' 'were studies with a population of human subjects, reported the association between ' 'Mediterranean diet adherence with risk of COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 symptoms, or COVID-19 ' 'severity, and full text must be available in English. The exclusion criteria were reviews, ' 'editorials, letters, replies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, studies on animals, and ' 'duplicates. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed using Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). ' 'Data was synthesized narratively. Each study was compared and a structured summary was ' 'developed.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>After ' 'selection process, 6 articles were included, with a sample size of 55,489 patients. All ' 'studies were observational studies and assessed Mediterranean diet adherence using food ' 'frequency questionnaires (FFQ), with scoring system varied between each study. Four studies ' 'found a significant correlation between increased adherence to Mediterranean Diet and reduced ' 'COVID-19 risk, while one study indicated non-significant association. One study reported a ' 'significant association between higher adherence to Mediterranean Diet and COVID-19 symptoms, ' 'but three studies reported non-significant association. One study found that individuals with ' 'higher adherence to Mediterranean Diet had reduced likelihood of developing severe COVID-19, ' 'however, two studies yielded inconclusive ' 'findings.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Limitations</jats:title><jats:p>All ' 'studies used self-administrated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), which were prone to ' 'biased responses, such as recall and estimation ' 'bias.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Discussion</jats:title><jats:p>Lower trends of ' 'odds ratios (ORs) were consistently observed in higher Mediterranean diet adherence. In every ' 'outcome of the included studies, ORs ranged between 0.06-0.992, however, differing levels of ' 'significance were reported in each ' 'outcome.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>Overall ' 'analyses suggest that high adherence to Mediterranean Diet is a protective factor against ' 'COVID-19, with unclear benefits against COVID-19 symptoms and ' 'severity.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Primary Funding ' 'Source</jats:title><jats:p>The author(s) received no specific funding for this ' 'work.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597', 'type': 'posted-content', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 25]], 'date-time': '2024-03-25T19:00:12Z', 'timestamp': 1711393212000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Relevance of Mediterranean diet as a nutritional strategy in diminishing COVID-19 risk: A ' 'systematic review', 'prefix': '10.1101', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1361-8147', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Ceria', 'family': 'Halim', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Miranda', 'family': 'Howen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'given': 'Athirah Amirah Nabilah binti', 'family': 'Fitrisubroto', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Timotius', 'family': 'Pratama', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Indah Ramadhani', 'family': 'Harahap', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Lacman Jaya', 'family': 'Ganesh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1107-055X', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Andre Marolop Pangihutan', 'family': 'Siahaan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '246', 'reference': [ { 'key': '#cr-split#-2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.1.1', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. Rolling updates on coronavirus disease ' '(COVID-19) [Internet]. [Updated 2020 Jul 31'}, { 'key': '#cr-split#-2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.1.2', 'unstructured': 'cited 2023 Oct 16]. Available from: ' 'https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.2', 'unstructured': 'Clinical management of COVID-19: Living guideline [Internet]. Geneva: ' 'World Health Organization; 2022 Jun 23-. Available from: ' 'https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK582435/'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4049/jimmunol.2000413'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2022.921452'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa1800389'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2174/1871530314666140922153350'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/ijerph18052455'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/medicina57121389'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154407'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n71'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.12', 'unstructured': 'Wells GA , Shea B , O’Connell D , Peterson J , Welch V , Losos M , ' 'Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of ' 'nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses [Internet]. [Updated 2021; cited ' '2023 Oct 8]. Available from: ' 'https://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pone.0147601'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.l4898'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1471-2288-9-59'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019703'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.4082/kjfm.23.0034'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.18', 'unstructured': 'BMJ Best Practice. What is GRADE? [Internet]. [Cited 2023 Oct 19]. ' 'Available from: ' 'https://bestpractice.bmj.com/info/toolkit/learn-ebm/what-is-grade/'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/medicina59020227'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2021.707359'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fnut.2021.805533'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13051721'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/09637486.2023.2212879'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcn/nqac219'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2022.911273'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000272'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.aller.2016.08.006'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1177/02601060221127853'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.28298'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Borenstein M , Hedges LV , Higgins JPT , Rothstein HR . Introduction to ' 'Meta-Analysis 1st ed. West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons ' 'Ltd; 2009.', 'DOI': '10.1002/9780470743386'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13092980'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/nutrit/nuaa067'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/biology12020279'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.2174/138161211795428911'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1017/S0007114522000137'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.3390/molecules26185537'}, { 'key': '2024032703500646000_2024.03.24.24304597v1.37', 'unstructured': 'Higgins JPT , Thomas J , Chandler J , Cumpston M , Li T , Page MJ , ' 'Welch VA (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of ' 'Interventions version 6.4 [updated August 2023]. Cochrane, 2023. ' 'Available from www.training.cochrane.org/handbook.'}], 'container-title': [], 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://syndication.highwire.org/content/doi/10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 27]], 'date-time': '2024-03-27T10:59:37Z', 'timestamp': 1711537177000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'http://medrxiv.org/lookup/doi/10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 25]]}, 'references-count': 38, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2024.03.24.24304597', 'relation': {}, 'subject': [], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 25]]}, 'subtype': 'preprint'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit