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A Dual Pharmacological Strategy against COVID-19: The Therapeutic Potential of Metformin and Atorvastatin

De Jesús-González et al., Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020383
Feb 2024  
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Metformin for COVID-19
3rd treatment shown to reduce risk in July 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 87 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of the therapeutic potential of metformin and atorvastatin against COVID-19. Authors discuss the immunomodulatory and antiviral capabilities of these commonly prescribed diabetes and cholesterol medications. They note metformin's ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication by activating AMPK, reducing inflammation, and potentially preventing viral entry by phosphorylating the ACE2 receptor. Meanwhile atorvastatin may disrupt lipid metabolism required for viral replication and assembly. Retrospective studies suggest reduced COVID-19 mortality and severity among patients already taking these drugs. Authors suggest that the wide availability, safety profiles, and low costs of metformin and atorvastatin make them promising candidates for repurposing against SARS-CoV-2.
Reviews covering metformin for COVID-19 include De Jesús-González, Halma, Petakh, Tseng, Zhang.
De Jesús-González et al., 13 Feb 2024, retrospective, placebo-controlled, Mexico, peer-reviewed, 15 authors. Contact: (corresponding author),,,,,,,,,,,,,,
This PaperMetforminAll
A Dual Pharmacological Strategy against COVID-19: The Therapeutic Potential of Metformin and Atorvastatin
Luis Adrián De Jesús-González, Rosa María Del Ángel, Selvin Noé Palacios-Rápalo, Carlos Daniel Cordero-Rivera, Adrián Rodríguez-Carlos, Juan Valentin Trujillo-Paez, Carlos Noe Farfan-Morales, Juan Fidel Osuna-Ramos, José Manuel Reyes-Ruiz, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Moisés León-Juárez, Ana Cristina García-Herrera, Adriana Clara Ramos-Cortes, Erika Alejandra López-Gándara, Estefanía Martínez-Rodríguez
Microorganisms, doi:10.3390/microorganisms12020383
Metformin (MET) and atorvastatin (ATO) are promising treatments for COVID-19. This review explores the potential of MET and ATO, commonly prescribed for diabetes and dyslipidemia, respectively, as versatile medicines against SARS-CoV-2. Due to their immunomodulatory and antiviral capabilities, as well as their cost-effectiveness and ubiquitous availability, they are highly suitable options for treating the virus. MET's effect extends beyond managing blood sugar, impacting pathways that can potentially decrease the severity and fatality rates linked with COVID-19. It can partially block mitochondrial complex I and stimulate AMPK, which indicates that it can be used more widely in managing viral infections. ATO, however, impacts cholesterol metabolism, a crucial element of the viral replicative cycle, and demonstrates anti-inflammatory characteristics that could modulate intense immune reactions in individuals with COVID-19. Retrospective investigations and clinical trials show decreased hospitalizations, severity, and mortality rates in patients receiving these medications. Nevertheless, the journey from observing something to applying it in a therapeutic setting is intricate, and the inherent diversity of the data necessitates carefully executed, forwardlooking clinical trials. This review highlights the requirement for efficacious, easily obtainable, and secure COVID-19 therapeutics and identifies MET and ATO as promising treatments in this worldwide health emergency.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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