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Exploring autophagy in treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology

Halma et al., Endocrine and Metabolic Science, doi:10.1016/j.endmts.2024.100163
Jan 2024  
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Review of autophagy pathways for treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology. Authors note that the spike protein is implicated in long COVID and post-vaccination syndrome through mechanisms like inflammation, vascular damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Authors discuss the mechanisms by which fasting and other interventions can upregulate autophagy to clear spike protein aggregates and improve mitochondrial function.
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Halma et al., 30 Jan 2024, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:,,
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Exploring autophagy in treating SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-related pathology
Matthew T J Halma, Paul E Marik, Yusuf M Saleeby
Endocrine and Metabolic Science, doi:10.1016/j.endmts.2024.100163
Fasting, a practice with historical roots in various cultures, has recently garnered significant interest in the field of medicine. In this article, we delve into the mechanisms underlying fasting-induced autophagy and its therapeutic applications for spike protein associated pathology. We explore the therapeutic potential of fasting on spike protein-related pathology and the role of interventions to upregulate autophagy, including compounds like spermidine, resveratrol, rapamycin, and metformin. In conclusion, fasting, coupled with an understanding of its nuances, holds promise as a therapeutic intervention for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein related diseases; with broad implications for human health. This review presents the therapeutic possibility of using autophagy to treat spike protein related diseases, and details the interventions to deploy this therapeutic modality.
Institutional review board statement Not applicable. CRediT authorship contribution Declaration of competing interest M.T.J.H. is a member of the World Council for Health, a non-profit health advocacy organization. P.E.M. is the founder of the Frontline Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance (FLCCC). Y.M.S. is the medical director for Carolina Holistic Medicine and a member of the FLCCC.
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