Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All N‑acetylcysteine studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchN-acetylcysteineN-acetylcys.. (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 80% Improvement Relative Risk Recovery 83% N-acetylcysteine  Altay et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  DB RCT Is early treatment with N-acetylcysteine + combined treatments beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 305 patients in Turkey Improved recovery with N-acetylcysteine + combined treatments (p<0.000001) Altay et al., Advanced Science, June 2021 Favors N-acetylcysteine Favors control

Combined Metabolic Activators Accelerates Recovery in Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19

Altay et al., Advanced Science, doi:10.1002/advs.202101222
Jun 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
14th treatment shown to reduce risk in February 2021
*, now known with p = 0.000034 from 24 studies, recognized in 3 countries.
Lower risk for mortality, hospitalization, and cases.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
RCT 304 low-risk outpatients, 229 treated with N-acetylcysteine, l-carnitine tartrate, nicotinamide riboside chloride, and serine, showing significantly faster recovery with treatment. Plasma levels of proteins and metabolites associated with inflammation and antioxidant metabolism were significantly improved in treated patients.
risk of hospitalization, 80.1% lower, RR 0.20, p = 0.25, treatment 0 of 229 (0.0%), control 1 of 76 (1.3%), NNT 76, relative risk is not 0 because of continuity correction due to zero events (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm).
risk of no recovery, 82.7% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, treatment 229, control 75, inverted to make RR<1 favor treatment, multivariate Cox regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Altay et al., 28 Jun 2021, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Turkey, peer-reviewed, 18 authors, this trial uses multiple treatments in the treatment arm (combined with l-carnitine tartrate, nicotinamide riboside chloride, serine) - results of individual treatments may vary.
This PaperN-acetylcys..All
Combined Metabolic Activators Accelerates Recovery in Mild‐to‐Moderate COVID‐19
Dr Ozlem Altay, Dr Muhammad Arif, Xiangyu Li, Dr Hong Yang, Dr Mehtap Aydın, Dr Gizem Alkurt, Dr Woonghee Kim, Dogukan Akyol, Dr Cheng Zhang, Gizem Dinler‐doganay, Hasan Turkez, Prof Saeed M Shoaie, Jens Nielsen, Jan Borén, Oktay Olmuscelik, Levent Doganay, Mathias Uhlén, Adil Mardinoglu
Advanced Science, doi:10.1002/advs.202101222
COVID-19 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, including the deficiencies in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) and glutathione metabolism. Here it is investigated if administration of a mixture of combined metabolic activators (CMAs) consisting of glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID-19 patients. CMAs include l-serine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, nicotinamide riboside, and l-carnitine tartrate, salt form of l-carnitine. Placebo-controlled, open-label phase 2 study and double-blinded phase 3 clinical trials are conducted to investigate the time of symptom-free recovery on ambulatory patients using CMAs. The results of both studies show that the time to complete recovery is significantly shorter in the CMA group (6.6 vs 9.3 d) in phase 2 and (5.7 vs 9.2 d) in phase 3 trials compared to placebo group. A comprehensive analysis of the plasma metabolome and proteome reveals major metabolic changes. Plasma levels of proteins and metabolites associated with inflammation and antioxidant metabolism are significantly improved in patients treated with CMAs as compared to placebo. The results show that treating patients infected with COVID-19 with CMAs lead to a more rapid symptom-free recovery, suggesting a role for such a therapeutic regime in the treatment of infections leading to respiratory problems.
Supporting Information Supporting Information is available from the Wiley Online Library or from the author. Conflict of Interest A.M., J.B., and M.U. are the founders and shareholders of ScandiBio Therapeutics and they filed a patent application on the use of CMA to treat COVID-19 patients. The other authors declare no competing interests.
Airhart, Shireman, Risler, Anderson, Nagana Gowda et al., None, PLoS One
Altay, Mohammadi, Lam, Turkez, Boren et al., None, iScience
Balasubramanyam, Coraza, Smith, Scott, Patel et al., None, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab
Benedetti, Waldman, Zaza, Riella, Cravedi, None, Front. Med
Bertolini, Van De Peppel, Bodewes, Moshage, Fantin et al., None, Hepatology
Bieganowski, Brenner, None, Cell
Bornstein, Dalan, Hopkins, Mingrone, Boehm, None, Nat. Rev. Endocrinol
Conze, Brenner, Kruger, None, Sci. Rep
Coperchini, Chiovato, Croce, Magri, Rotondi, None, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev
Elhassan, Kluckova, Fletcher, Schmidt, Garten et al., None, Cell Rep
Grimes, Khan, Badeaux, Rao, Rowlinson, None, Int. J. Infec. Dis
Gupta, Madhavan, Sehgal, Nair, Mahajan et al., None, Nat. Med
Hagen, Ingersoll, Wehr, Lykkesfeldt, Vinarsky et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci
Haukka, Sandholm, Forsblom, Cobb, Groop et al., None, Sci. Rep
Heaton, Randall, None, Trends Microbiol
Heer, Sanderson, Voth, Alhammad, Schmidt et al., None, J. Biol. Chem
Hundt, Deng, Ciarleglio, Nathanson, Lim, None, Hepatology
Hung, Lung, Tso, Liu, Chung et al., None
Izzo, Montella, Orlando, Nasti, Beneduce et al., Gastroenterol, Hepatol
Lee, Lin, Lin, Lin, None, Nutrition
Lie, Tsang, Cheng, Que, Lau et al., None, Lancet
Ma, Bantug, Griss, Condotta, Johnson et al., None, Cell Metab
Malaguarnera, Pennisi, Gagliano, Vacante, Malaguarnera et al., None, Hepatitis Mon
Mardinoglu, Bjornson, Zhang, Klevstig, Soderlund et al., None, Mol. Syst. Biol
Mardinoglu, Boren, Smith, Uhlen, Nielsen, None, Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol
Mardinoglu, Ural, Zeybel, Yuksel, Uhlén et al., None, Nutrients
Marschall, Nielsen, Uhlén, Borén, Mardinoglu, None, Mol. Syst. Biol
Mata, Sarrion, Armengot, Carda, Martinez et al., None, PLoS One
Miller, Wentzel, Richards, None, Med. Hypotheses
Moore, June, None, Science
Patel, Patel, Vunnam, Hewlett, Jain et al., None, J. Clin. Virol
Redd, Zhou, Hathorn, Mccarty, Bazarbashi et al., None, Gastroenterology
Rodriguez, Ducker, Billingham, Martinez, Mainolfi et al., None, Cell Metab
Sahebnasagh, Saghafi, Avan, Khoshi, Khataminia et al., None, Eur. J. Pharmacol
Saleh, Peyssonnaux, Singh, Edeas, None, Mitochondrion
Salic, Gart, Seidel, Verschuren, Caspers et al., None, Int. J. Mol. Sci
Sanchez, Ochoa, Foster, None, Antiviral Res
Sharma, Aramburo, Rafikov, Sun, Kumar et al., None, Pediatr. Res
Sharma, Aramburo, Rafikov, Sun, Kumar et al., None, Pediatr. Res
Shen, Yi, Sun, Bi, Du et al., None, Cell
Silvagno, Vernone, Pescarmona, None, Antioxidants
Sim, Yin, Choi, Choi, Kwak et al., None, J. Nutr
Song, Lam, Fan, Cao, Wang et al., None, Cell Metab
Song, Park, Kim, Kim, Lee et al., None, Int. Immunopharmacol
Thomas, Stefanoni, Reisz, Nemkov, Bertolone et al., None, JCI Insight
Trammell, Schmidt, Weidemann, Redpath, Jaksch et al., None, Nat. Commun
Trammell, Weidemann, Chadda, Yorek, Holmes et al., None, Sci. Rep
Wang, Liu, Mckenzie, Witting, Stasch et al., None, Nat. Med
Wang, Liu, Song, Zou, None, Front. Biosci
Wijnands, Castermans, Hommen, Meesters, Poeze, None, Nutrients
Wu, Sin, Leung, Law, Lung et al., None
Zhang, Bjornson, Arif, Tebani, Lovric et al., None
Zhang, Ding, Li, Wang, Chen et al., None, Exp. Ther. Med
Zhang, Ju, Ma, Wang, None, Medicine
Zhou, Yu, Du, Fan, Liu et al., None, Lancet
Zhou, Zhang, He, Wu, Yin, None, Front. Endocrinol
Zhu, She, Cheng, Qin, Zhang et al., None, Cell Metab
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop