25 Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Concentration and COVID-19 Severity and Outcome—A Retrospective Survey in a Romanian Hospital
Topan et al.
, 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Concentration and COVID-19 Severity and Outcome—A Retrospective Survey in a Romanian..
, Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu15051227
Retrospective 2,342 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Romania with vitamin D levels measured on admission day, showing lower risk of mortality and severe/critical cases with vitamin D levels ≥ 20ng/mL.
risk of death, 30.6% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.02, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 61 of 1,148 (5.3%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 118 of 1,194 (9.9%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable.
risk of severe case, 10.9% lower, RR 0.89, p = 0.02, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 432 of 1,148 (37.6%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 560 of 1,194 (46.9%), NNT 11, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk, severe/critical case, multivariable.
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Topan et al., 28 Feb 2023, retrospective, Romania, peer-reviewed, survey, 6 authors, study period April 2020 - May 2022.
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25 Hydroxyvitamin D Serum Concentration and COVID-19 Severity
and Outcome—A Retrospective Survey in a Romanian Hospital
Adriana Topan 1,2 , Mihaela Lupse 1,2, *, Mihai Calin 2 , Cristian Jianu 2 , Daniel-Corneliu Leucuta 3
and Violeta Briciu 1,2
Citation: Topan, A.; Lupse, M.; Calin,
M.; Jianu, C.; Leucuta, D.-C.; Briciu, V.
25 Hydroxyvitamin D Serum
Concentration and COVID-19
Severity and Outcome—A
Department of Infectious Diseases, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy,
400348 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
The Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, 400348 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Medical Informatics and Biostatistics, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine
and Pharmacy, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Abstract: Interest in the immunomodulatory function of vitamin D has grown since the COVID-19
pandemic started. Our study investigated the possible association between vitamin D deficiency
and COVID-19 severity, intensive care needs, and mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID19. A prospective cohort study was performed on 2342 COVID-19 hospitalized patients between
April 2020 and May 2022 in a Romanian tertiary hospital for infectious diseases. A multivariate
generalized linear model for binary data was fit with dependent variables: severe/critical form of
COVID-19, intensive care need, and fatal outcome as a function of vitamin D deficiency, controlling
for age, comorbidities, and vaccination status. More than half of the patients (50.9%) were classified
with vitamin D deficiency based on a serum concentration of less than 20 ng/mL. There was a
negative association between vitamin D and age. Vitamin D-deficient patients presented with more
cardiovascular, neurological, and pulmonary diseases, as well as diabetes, and cancer. In multivariate
logistic regression models, vitamin D-deficient patients had higher odds of severe/critical forms of
COVID-19 [OR = 1.23 (95% CI 1.03–1.47), p = 0.023] and higher odds of death [OR = 1.49 (95% CI
1.06–2.08), p = 0.02]. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with disease severity and death outcome in
hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Keywords: 25(OH)D deficiency; vitamin D deficiency; COVID-19; severity form; ICU need;
Retrospective Survey in a Romanian
Hospital. Nutrients 2023, 15, 1227.
Academic Editor: Jose M.
Received: 11 February 2023
Revised: 25 February 2023
Accepted: 26 February 2023
Published: 28 February 2023
Copyright: © 2023 by the authors.
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