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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 55% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Infante et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 137 patients in Italy Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.046) Infante et al., J. the American Colleg.., Feb 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study

Infante et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580
Feb 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,100+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 137 hospitalized patients in Italy. All patients had low vitamin D levels, and lower levels were associated with higher mortality.
In multivariate logistic regression, vitamin D levels were significantly inversely associated with mortality (OR 0.91 [0.85-0.98] p=0.01).
This is the 48th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 54.8% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.046, high D levels 4 of 19 (21.1%), low D levels 55 of 118 (46.6%), NNT 3.9, >20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Infante et al., 18 Feb 2021, retrospective, Italy, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study
Marco Infante, Andrea Buoso, Massimo Pieri, Santina Lupisella, Marzia Nuccetelli, Sergio Bernardini, Andrea Fabbri, Marco Iannetta, Massimo Andreoni, Vittorio Colizzi, Maria Morello
Journal of the American Nutrition Association, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580
Objective: Preliminary findings suggest a relationship between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and incidence and severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D status at admission and different markers of inflammation, coagulation, and sepsis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Method: We conducted a retrospective study on 137 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and available data on serum 25(OH)D levels, who were admitted to our Institution between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: survivors (n ¼ 78; 57%) and non-survivors (n ¼ 59; 43%). Results: At admission, all patients showed hypovitaminosis D. Median total serum 25(OH)D levels at admission were significantly higher in survivors than non-survivors (12 ng/mL vs 8 ng/mL; p < 0.01). Non-survivors exhibited significantly higher median levels of white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), ferritin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), D-dimer, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin (PCT) compared to survivors at three different time points during hospitalization. In a multivariate analysis performed by a logistic regression model, serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.98; p ¼ 0.01). According to receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, hsCRP, NLR, ferritin, and D-dimer were the best predictive biomarkers for poor prognosis of COVID-19, whereas IL-6, PCT, fibrinogen, 25(OH)D, WBC count, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) may serve as supportive biomarkers for worse clinical course of the disease. Conclusions: We found a markedly high prevalence (100%) of hypovitaminosis D in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, suggesting a possible role of low vitamin D status in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent hospitalization. The inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of in-hospital mortality observed in our cohort suggests that a lower vitamin D status upon admission may represent a modifiable and independent risk factor for poor prognosis in COVID-19.
Authors' contributions MI and MM designed the research project, wrote the paper, supervised the project, and equally contributed to the manuscript. AB collected and retrieved clinical data, analyzed results, and contributed to the research project. MP performed statistical analysis. SL and MN performed, collected, and retrieved biochemical data. SB, AF, MIa, MA, and VC supervised the research project and reviewed the manuscript. All authors edited the manuscript. No honorarium, grant, or other forms of payment were received by authors to write this manuscript. Disclosure statement No author has potential conflicts of interest to disclose.
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