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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality, 12ng/mL 98% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality, 20ng/mL 96% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Hafez et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 126 patients in United Arab Emirates Lower mortality with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.02) c19early.org Hafez et al., Frontiers in Medicine, Mar 2022 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Vitamin D Status in Relation to the Clinical Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients

Hafez et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.843737
Mar 2022  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 126 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality.
This is the 128th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 97.7% lower, RR 0.02, p = 0.02, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 6 of 116 (5.2%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 3 of 10 (30.0%), NNT 4.0, adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥12ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable, model 2.
risk of death, 96.3% lower, RR 0.04, p = 0.04, high D levels (≥20ng/mL) 4 of 64 (6.2%), low D levels (<20ng/mL) 5 of 62 (8.1%), adjusted per study, inverted to make RR<1 favor high D levels (≥20ng/mL), odds ratio converted to relative risk, multivariable, model 3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hafez et al., 29 Mar 2022, retrospective, United Arab Emirates, peer-reviewed, mean age 43.0, 11 authors. Contact: waeelhafez@yahoo.com.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Vitamin D Status in Relation to the Clinical Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Wael Hafez, Husam Saleh, Arun Arya, Mouhamad Alzouhbi, Osman Fdl Alla, Kumar Lal, Samy Kishk, Sara Ali, Srinivasa Raghu, Walaa Elgaili, Wissam Abdul Hadi
Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.843737
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease that first appeared in China. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with an anti-inflammatory protective role during viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, via regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses. The study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. This was a retrospective study of 126 COVID-19 patients treated in NMC Royal Hospital, UAE. The mean age of patients was 43 ± 12 years. Eighty three percentage of patients were males, 51% patients were with sufficient (> 20 ng/mL), 41% with insufficient (12-20 ng/mL), and 8% with deficient (<12 ng/mL) serum 25(OH)D levels. There was a statistically significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and mortality (p = 0.04). There was a statistically significant correlation between 25(OH)D levels and ICU admission (p = 0.03), but not with the need for mechanical ventilation (p = 0.07). The results showed increased severity and mortality by 9 and 13%, respectively, for each one-year increase in age. This effect was maintained after adjustment for age and gender (Model-1) and age, gender, race, and co-morbidities (Models-2,3). 25(OH)D levels (<12 ng/mL) showed a significant increase in mortality by eight folds before adjustments (p = 0.01), by 12 folds in Model-1 (p = 0.04), and by 62 folds in the Model-2. 25(OH)D levels (< 20 ng/mL) showed no association with mortality before adjustment and in Model-1. However, it showed a significant increase in mortality by 29 folds in Model-3. Neither 25(OH)D levels (<12 ng/mL) nor (< 20 ng/mL) were risk factors for severity. Radiological findings were not significantly different among patients with different 25(OH)D levels. Despite observed shorter time till viral clearance and time from cytokine release storm to recovery among patients with sufficient 25(OH)D levels, the findings were statistically insignificant. In conclusion, we demonstrated a significant correlation between vitamin D deficiency and poor COVID-19 outcomes.
CONCLUSION In summary, our study showed a statistically significant correlation between deficient serum 25(OH)D levels (<12 ng/mL) and poor clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients. Given our findings and vitamin D's safety as well as its broad therapeutic window, public health policies may recommend vitamin D supplementation to improve COVID-19 patient outcomes, particularly among individuals at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and patients with risk factors for poor COVID-19 outcomes and initial vitamin d deficiency. Larger controlled trials are recommended to control possible confounding factors and determine the optimal cut-off values of serum vitamin D levels. ETHICS STATEMENT The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Abu Dhabi Health COVID-19 Research Ethics Committee (DOH/CVDC/2020/231). Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS WH: literature review, conceptualization, project administration, data analysis and interpretation, revising, writing of original and final draft, and sharing in writing the manuscript. AA, HS, SA, OF, KL, SR, MA, WA, SK, and WE: literature review, analysis, interpretation of data, revising the work, editing, final approval of the version to be published, and agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All authors have contributed to the article, and read and..
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{ 'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2022.843737', 'ISSN': ['2296-858X'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.843737', 'abstract': '<jats:p>Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease that first ' 'appeared in China. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with an anti-inflammatory protective role ' 'during viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 infection, via regulating the innate and ' 'adaptive immune responses. The study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum ' '25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. This was a ' 'retrospective study of 126 COVID-19 patients treated in NMC Royal Hospital, UAE. The mean age ' 'of patients was 43 ± 12 years. Eighty three percentage of patients were males, 51% patients ' 'were with sufficient (&amp;gt; 20 ng/mL), 41% with insufficient (12–20 ng/mL), and 8% with ' 'deficient (&amp;lt;12 ng/mL) serum 25(OH)D levels. There was a statistically significant ' 'correlation between vitamin D deficiency and mortality (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.04). ' 'There was a statistically significant correlation between 25(OH)D levels and ICU admission ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.03), but not with the need for mechanical ventilation ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.07). The results showed increased severity and mortality by ' '9 and 13%, respectively, for each one-year increase in age. This effect was maintained after ' 'adjustment for age and gender (Model-1) and age, gender, race, and co-morbidities ' '(Models-2,3). 25(OH)D levels (&amp;lt;12 ng/mL) showed a significant increase in mortality by ' 'eight folds before adjustments (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.01), by 12 folds in Model-1 ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.04), and by 62 folds in the Model-2. 25(OH)D levels ' '(&amp;lt; 20 ng/mL) showed no association with mortality before adjustment and in Model-1. ' 'However, it showed a significant increase in mortality by 29 folds in Model-3. Neither ' '25(OH)D levels (&amp;lt;12 ng/mL) nor (&amp;lt; 20 ng/mL) were risk factors for severity. ' 'Radiological findings were not significantly different among patients with different 25(OH)D ' 'levels. Despite observed shorter time till viral clearance and time from cytokine release ' 'storm to recovery among patients with sufficient 25(OH)D levels, the findings were ' 'statistically insignificant. 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'B16', 'volume': '287', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8', 'article-title': 'The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 ' 'infection and mortality', 'author': 'Ilie', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1195', 'journal-title': 'Aging Clin Exp Res', 'key': 'B17', 'volume': '32', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1515/cclm-2020-1567', 'article-title': 'Vitamin-D levels and intensive care unit outcomes of a cohort of ' 'critically ill COVID-19 patients', 'author': 'Orchard', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1155', 'journal-title': 'Clin Chem Lab Med.', 'key': 'B18', 'volume': '59', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252', 'article-title': 'Serum 25(OH)D level on hospital admission associated with COVID-19 ' 'stage and mortality', 'author': 'De Smet', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '381', 'journal-title': 'Am J Clin Pathol.', 'key': 'B19', 'volume': '155', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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