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Temporal Association of Reduced Serum Vitamin D with COVID-19 Infection: Two Single-Institution Case–Control Studies

Gupta et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132757
Jul 2022  
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Retrospective study of 107 COVID-19 patients with vitamin D levels measured within 180 days before diagnosis, and 203 patients with levels measured after diagnosis, showing lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 hospitalized patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients, but no significant association between vitamin D levels before infection and cases.
Authors do not analyze the risk of serious outcomes based on pre-infection levels. Intervention studies show minimal benefit for cases, but much greater benefit for serious outcomes. Results are provided only for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
Gupta et al., 2 Jul 2022, USA, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period 1 January, 2020 - 30 September, 2020.
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Temporal Association of Reduced Serum Vitamin D with COVID-19 Infection: Two Single-Institution Case–Control Studies
Diviya Gupta, Sahit Menon, Michael H Criqui, Bryan K Sun
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132757
1) Background: Vitamin D supplementation has been proposed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, but it is not clear if reduced serum vitamin D predisposes individuals to COVID-19 and/or is a secondary consequence of infection. This study assessed the temporal association between serum vitamin D and COVID-19 with two single-institution case-control studies through the University of California San Diego (UCSD) Health System. (2) Methods: This study included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from 1 January to 30 September 2020 with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) measured within 180 days of diagnosis. Patients were separated based on whether 25(OH)D was measured before (n = 107 cases, 214 controls) or after (n = 203 cases, 406 controls) COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19 infection status was the outcome variable in the pre-diagnosis study, whereas serum 25(OH)D level was the outcome variable in the post-diagnosis study. (3) Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the odds of subsequent COVID-19 infection (OR 1.0, 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.0, p = 0.98). However, COVID-19-positive individuals had serum 25(OH)D measurements that were 2.7 ng/mL lower than the controls (95% CI: −5.2 to −0.2, p = 0.03). (4) Conclusions: In our study population, serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with the risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection but were reduced in subjects after COVID-19 infection. These results support the possibility that reduced serum 25(OH)D is a consequence and not a cause of COVID-19 infection.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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