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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Lack of association between vitamin D insufficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection

Davoudi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7
May 2021  
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Mortality -12% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 16% ICU admission 28% Severe case -68% Vitamin D for COVID-19  Davoudi et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 153 patients in Iran (February - March 2020) Higher severe cases with higher vitamin D levels (not stat. sig., p=0.3) c19early.org Davoudi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, May 2021 Favorsvitamin D Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 122 studies, recognized in 9 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 153 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are only provided for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
This is the 64th of 199 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 835,162 vigintillion).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: excessive unadjusted differences between groups.
risk of death, 12.3% higher, RR 1.12, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 57 (3.5%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 3 of 96 (3.1%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 15.8% lower, RR 0.84, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 1 of 57 (1.8%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 2 of 96 (2.1%), NNT 304.
risk of ICU admission, 27.8% lower, RR 0.72, p = 0.74, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 3 of 57 (5.3%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 7 of 96 (7.3%), NNT 49.
risk of severe case, 68.4% higher, RR 1.68, p = 0.30, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 9 of 57 (15.8%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 9 of 96 (9.4%).
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Davoudi et al., 18 May 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, study period February 2020 - March 2020. Contact: fkani63@gmail.com (corresponding author).
This PaperVitamin DAll
Lack of association between vitamin D insufficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection
Alireza Davoudi, Narges Najafi, Mohsen Aarabi, Atefeh Tayebi, Roja Nikaeen, Hamideh Izadyar, Zahra Salar, Leila Delavarian, Narges Vaseghi, Zahra Daftarian, Fatemeh Ahangarkani
BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7
Background: A protective effect of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection is under investigation. We aimed to analyze the effect of vitamin D sufficiency on the clinical outcomes of patients infected with COVID-19. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we analyzed the vitamin D levels of COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Razi Hospital (an infectious disease referral center in Mazandaran province in northern Iran) from February to March 2020. Overall, a cutoff point of 30 ng/mL was used for the definition of vitamin D sufficiency. Results: One hundred fifty-three patients were analyzed in this study who had laboratory documentation of a 25(OH) D level at the time of hospitalization. The vitamin D levels of the patients were 27.19 ± 20.17 ng/mL. In total, 62.7% (n = 96) of the patients had a 25(OH) D level of less than 30 ng/mL and 37.25% (n = 57) had a 25(OH) D level of more than 30 ng/mL. In total, 49% (n = 75) of the patients suffered from at least one underlying disease. The univariate and multivariable regression showed that vitamin D sufficiency was not associated with a statistically significant lower risk of adverse clinical outcomes of COVID-19 such as duration of hospitalization and severity of infection (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Sufficient vitamin D levels were not found to be protective against adverse clinical outcomes in patients infected with COVID-19. Chronic disorders in COVID-19 patients were found to have greater relevance than vitamin D levels in determining the adverse outcomes of the infection. Further studies are needed to determine the role of vitamin D level in predicting the outcomes of COVID-19 infection.
Authors' contributions AD, NN and FA designed the project, collected data, wrote and performed the critical review of the manuscript. MA, AT, HI, ZS, LD, RN, NV and ZD contributed to clinical data collection. MA and RN carried out statistical interpretation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Declarations Ethics approval and consent to participate This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ramsar international branch of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences with code: IR.MAZUMS.RIB.REC.1399.019. In addition, written informed consent was obtained from all subjects or, for subjects under the age of 18, from a parent and/or legal guardian. In this study all applied methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. Consent for publication Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6.', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '6168_CR24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7432', 'DOI': '10.3892/mmr.2017.7546', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'J Xu', 'year': '2017', 'unstructured': 'Xu J, Yang J, Chen J, Luo Q, Zhang Q, Zhang H. Vitamin D alleviates ' 'lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via regulation of the ' 'renin-angiotensin system. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16(5):7432–8. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.7546.', 'journal-title': 'Mol Med Rep'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '6168_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '561', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'CE Hastie', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Hastie CE, Mackay DF, Ho F, Celis-Morales CA, Katikireddi SV, Niedzwiedz ' 'CL, et al. Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK ' 'biobank. Diab Metab Syndrome. 2020;14(4):561–5. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050.', 'journal-title': 'Diab Metab Syndrome'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': '6168_CR26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '735', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'AR Martineau', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Martineau AR, Forouhi NG. Vitamin D for COVID-19: a case to answer? ' 'Lancet Diab Endocrinol. 2020;8(9):735–6. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30268-0.', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Diab Endocrinol'}, { 'key': '6168_CR27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Biesalski HK: Vitamin D deficiency and co-morbidities in COVID-19 ' 'patients–a fatal relationship? NFS J. 2020;20:10–21. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2020.06.001.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.nfs.2020.06.001'}, { 'issue': '195', 'key': '6168_CR28', 'first-page': '30', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'H Azadeh', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Azadeh H, Hedayatizadeh-Omran A, Saeedi M, Vahedi-Larijani L, Mehravaran ' 'H, Heydari K. Serum vitamin D concentrations in CoVID19 patients. J ' 'Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2021;31(195):30–6.', 'journal-title': 'J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci'}, { 'key': '6168_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Brandão C, Chiamolera MI, Biscolla RPM, Lima JVJ, De Francischi Ferrer ' 'CM, Prieto WH, de Sá Tavares Russo P, de Sá J, Dos Santos Lazari C, ' 'Granato CFH et al. No association between vitamin D status and COVID-19 ' 'infection in São Paulo, Brazil. Arch Endocrinol Metab 2021, DOI: ' 'https://doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000343.', 'DOI': '10.20945/2359-3997000000343'}, { 'key': '6168_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Baktash V, Hosack T, Patel N, Shah S, Kandiah P, Van Den Abbeele K, et ' 'al. Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with ' 'COVID-19. Postgrad Med J. 2020:postgradmedj-2020-138712. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712.', 'DOI': '10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712'}, { 'key': '6168_CR31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Ghasemian R, Shamshirian A, Heydari K, Malekan M, Alizadeh-Navaei R, ' 'Ebrahimzadeh MA, Jafarpour H, Shahmirzadi AR, Khodabandeh M, Seyfari B: ' 'The Role of Vitamin D in The Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and ' 'Meta-Analysis Along with an Ecological Approach. medRxiv. 2020. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.05.20123554.', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.06.05.20123554'}, { 'key': '6168_CR32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Ma Ch, Gu J, Hou P, Zhang L, Bai Y, Guo Zh, et al. Incidence, clinical ' 'characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19: a ' 'systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 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' 'Jama. 2020;323(20):2052–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6775.', 'journal-title': 'Jama'}, { 'issue': '10229', 'key': '6168_CR35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1054', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'F Zhou', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, et al. Clinical course and risk ' 'factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: ' 'a retrospective cohort study. Lancet (London, England). ' '2020;395(10229):1054–62.', 'journal-title': 'Lancet (London, England)'}, { 'issue': '10223', 'key': '6168_CR36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '497', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5', 'volume': '395', 'author': 'C Huang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of ' 'patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet ' '(London, England). 2020;395(10223):497–506.', 'journal-title': 'Lancet (London, England)'}, { 'key': '6168_CR37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'unstructured': 'Ilie PC, Stefanescu S, Smith L. The role of vitamin D in the prevention ' 'of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res. ' '2020;32(7):1195–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8.', 'DOI': '10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8'}], 'container-title': ['BMC Infectious Diseases'], 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 4]], 'date-time': '2021-06-04T09:22:24Z', 'timestamp': 1622798544000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': { 'primary': { 'URL': 'https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 5, 18]]}, 'references-count': 37, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '1', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2021, 12]]}}, 'alternative-id': ['6168'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1471-2334'], 'issn-type': [{'value': '1471-2334', 'type': 'electronic'}], 'subject': ['Infectious Diseases'], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 5, 18]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '4 December 2020', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '11 May 2021', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '18 May 2021', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, {'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Declarations'}}, { 'value': 'This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Ramsar international branch ' 'of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences with code: ' 'IR.MAZUMS.RIB.REC.1399.019. In addition, written informed consent was obtained ' 'from all subjects or, for subjects under the age of 18, from a parent and/or ' 'legal guardian. In this study all applied methods were carried out in ' 'accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Ethics approval and consent to participate'}}, { 'value': 'Not applicable.', 'order': 3, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Consent for publication'}}, { 'value': 'The authors declare that they have no competing interests.', 'order': 4, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Competing interests'}}], 'article-number': '450'}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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