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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case -25% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Golabi et al.  Prophylaxis Does vitamin D reduce COVID-19 infections? Retrospective 106 patients in Iran More cases with vitamin D (not stat. sig., p=0.56) Golabi et al., Nutrients, August 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study

Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (date from preprint)
Aug 2021  
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Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference in the use of supplements between cases and controls. IR.ABADANUMS.REC.1399.073.
This is the 47th of 115 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 30 sextillion). 27 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00002.
This study includes zinc and vitamin D.
risk of case, 25.4% higher, OR 1.25, p = 0.56, treatment 28 of 53 (52.8%) cases, 25 of 53 (47.2%) controls, case control OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Golabi et al., 26 Aug 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, dosage not specified.
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This PaperVitamin DAll
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Sahar Golabi, Maryam Adelipour, Sara Mobarak, Maghsud Piri, Maryam Seyedtabib, Reza Bagheri, Katsuhiko Suzuki, Damoon Ashtary-Larky, Fatemeh Maghsoudi, Mahshid Naghashpour
Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368
Vitamin D and zinc are important components of nutritional immunity. This study compared the serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and zinc in COVID-19 outpatients with those of potentially non-infected participants. The association of clinical symptoms with vitamin D and zinc status was also examined. A checklist and laboratory examination were applied to collect data in a cross-sectional study conducted on 53 infected outpatients with COVID-19 and 53 potentially non-infected participants. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D were not significantly lower in patients with moderate illness (19 ± 12 ng/mL) than patients with asymptomatic or mild illness (29 ± 18 ng/mL), with a trend noted for a lower serum concentration of 25(OH)D in moderate than asymptomatic or mild illness patients (p = 0.054). Infected patients (101 ± 18 µg/dL) showed a lower serum concentration of zinc than potentially non-infected participants (114 ± 13 µg/dL) (p = 0.01). Patients with normal (odds ratio (OR), 0.19; p ≤ 0.001) and insufficient (OR, 0.3; p = 0.007) vitamin D status at the second to seventh days of disease had decreased OR of general symptoms compared to patients with vitamin D deficiency. This study revealed the importance of 25(OH)D measurement to predict the progression of general and pulmonary symptoms and showed that infected patients had significantly lower zinc concentrations than potentially non-infected participants.
Informed Consent Statement: Informed consent was obtained from all participants involved in the study. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
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