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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -9% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Nasiri et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective 281 patients in Iran No significant difference in mortality Nasiri et al., Int. J. Infectious Dise.., Jun 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Does vitamin D serum level affect prognosis of COVID-19 patients?

Nasiri et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.083
Jun 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 329 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with longer hospitalization, but no significant association with mortality.
This is the 77th of 196 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 11,637 vigintillion).
risk of death, 8.9% higher, OR 1.09, p = 0.89, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 238, low D levels (<20ng/mL) 43, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels (≥30ng/mL), RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Nasiri et al., 30 Jun 2021, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 3 authors. Contact:
This PaperVitamin DAll
Does vitamin D serum level affect prognosis of COVID-19 patients?
Maryam Nasiri, Javad Khodadadi, Sedigheh Molaei
International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.083
Background: Since the beginning of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic there have been contradictions and speculations about the relationship between vitamin D and COVID-19. Given that there is an association between vitamin D deficiency and some diseasesincluding cancer, autoimmune disease and some infectious diseasesa higher incidence and mortality rate in the vitamin-D-deficient COVID-19 population was not a surprise; conversely, some research would argue this relationship. Considering these contradictions, this study aimed to determine the relationship between prognosis and vitamin D level in cases with COVID-19. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 329 confirmed cases of COVID-19who were admitted to Kamkar-ArabNia Hospital in Qom city, Iran from March-July 2020were categorized into three groups according to vitamin D serum levels (ng/ml): sufficient (>30), insufficient (20-30) and deficient (<20). Prognosis was determined across the groups. Results: There was a significant difference in hospital stay between patients with sufficient and insufficient vitamin D levels (P = 0.007). Adjusting vitamin D levels for confounding variables, linear regression underscored significant differences in the association between length of hospitalization and lower vitamin D levels, with a longer stay noted in insufficient groups (P = 0.002). However, there was no significant difference in the time interval to return to normal oxygen level (from SpO2 < 93%) or death rate between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: There was a significant association between hospital stay and lower serum vitamin D levels. However, the relationship between vitamin D status and death rate or the time interval to return to normal oxygen levels was not significant.
Authors' contributions All of the authors contributed to all parts of this study. Conflict of interest There are no conflicts of interest to declare. Ethical approval and consent to participate This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Qom University of Medical Sciences (IR.MUQ.REC.1399.058).
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