Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All favipiravir studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchFavipiravirFavipiravir (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Evaluation of the Costs and Outcomes of COVID-19 Therapeutic Regimens in Hospitalized Patients in Shiraz

Behboodikhah et al., Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, doi:10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0
Sep 2022  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 68% Improvement Relative Risk Favipiravir  Behboodikhah et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with favipiravir beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 2,174 patients in Iran Lower mortality with favipiravir (not stat. sig., p=0.2) c19early.org Behboodikhah et al., Iranian J. Scienc.., Sep 2022 Favors favipiravir Favors control
Retrospective 2,174 hospitalized patients showing significantly shorter length of stay with favipiravir treatment.
Study covers remdesivir and favipiravir.
risk of death, 68.5% lower, OR 0.32, p = 0.20, treatment 95, control 2,079, adjusted per study, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Behboodikhah et al., 15 Sep 2022, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperFavipiravirAll
Evaluation of the Costs and Outcomes of COVID-19 Therapeutic Regimens in Hospitalized Patients in Shiraz
Hooman Behboodikhah, Eslam Shorafa, Iman Karimzadeh, Mohsen Moghadami, Javad Shahmohammadi, Mohsen Bayati, Khosro Keshavarz, Manica Negahdaripour
doi:10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0(
patients in critical conditions are hospitalized and treated with various protocols including antiviral drugs, which have been updated repeatedly. This study was aimed to analyze the demographics, costs, and outcomes of drug regimens in COVID-19 patients hospitalized in ''Ali Asghar'' hospital, affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from March 2019 to December 2020 as a retrospective study, approved by the ethics committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (IR.SUMS.REC.1399.1003) on Dec. 28, 2020. Using hospital information system (HIS) data, 2174 patients receiving favipiravir, remdesivir, interferon-b, and Kaletra Ò were analyzed. Descriptive, univariate, and regression analyses were used. The costs and consequences of different drug regimens were significantly different (P value \ 0.05); the highest and lowest costs belonged to remdesivir and Kaletra Ò , respectively. The highest and lowest mean length of stay and mortality were related to remdesivir and favipiravir, respectively. Mortality did not differ significantly with various regimens. Length of stay was significantly shorter with favipiravir and Kaletra Ò than interferon-b. Remdesivir had significantly the highest cost. Age presented a significantly positive relationship with mortality and length of stay. Besides, ICU admission significantly increased mortality, length of stay, and costs. Underlying diseases and low blood oxygen saturation contributed to mortality. COVID-19 correlation with age and underlying diseases is accordant with the published data. Given the highest costs and broad usage of remdesivir, besides controversies regarding its outcomes and side effects, a stricter evaluation of remdesivir benefits seems essential. Totally, COVID-19 therapeutic protocols should be selected carefully to optimize costs and outcomes.
Author Contributions KHK and MN: contributed to the study conception and design. HB, KHK, and MN: were involved in data colstatistical analysis, interpretation, manuscript drafting, and final review of the manuscript. MM, ESH, and IK: helped with the research idea, providing the data, and supervision of the research. JSH: helped in data collecting and data cleaning. MB: helped in statistical analysis and interpretation. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. Declarations Conflict of Interest The authors declare no competing interests. Authors and Affiliations
References
Bagheri, Moezzi, Mosaddeghi, Interferoninducer antivirals: potential candidates to combat COVID-19, Int Immunopharmacol
Barbarawi, Jabri, Kumar, Fashanu, Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Contemp Clin Trials
Bartsch, Ferguson, Mckinnell, Shea, Wedlock, The potential health care costs and resource use associated with COVID-19 in the United States, Health Aff
Beigel, Tomashek, Dodd, Mehta, Zingman et al., Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19-final report, New Eng J Med
Cai, Yang, Liu, Chen, Shu, Experimental treatment with favipiravir for COVID-19: an open-label control study, Engineering
Cao, Wang, Wen, Liu, Wang, A trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19, New Eng J Med
Chen, Dai, Mo, Li, Ma, Clinical characteristics and outcomes of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, Retrosp Study J Gerontol: Series A
Dawoud, Soliman, Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: a systematic review of published economic evaluations, Value Health
Doggrell, Remdesivir, a remedy or a ripple in severe COVID-19?, Expert Opin Investig Drugs
Dro_, Rosik, Lechowicz, Machaj, Szostak et al., An update on drugs with therapeutic potential for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) treatment, Drug Resist Updat
Elshabrawy, SARS-CoV-2: an update on potential antivirals in light of SARS-CoV antiviral drug discoveries, Vaccines
Ghaffaridarab, Keshavarz, Sadeghi, Shahmohamadi, Kavosi, The economic burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): evidence from Iran, BMC Health Serv Res
Grein, Ohmagari, Shin, Diaz, Asperges, Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19, N Eng J Med
Guan, Liang, Zhao, Liang, Chen, Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis, Eur Res J
Hashemian, Pourhanifeh, Hamblin, Shahrzad, Mirzaei, Rd inhibitors and COVID-19: Is molnupiravir a good option?, Biomed Pharmacother
Jo, Jamieson, Edoka, Long, Silal, Costeffectiveness of remdesivir and dexamethasone for COVID-19 treatment in South Africa, Open Forum Inf Diss, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab040
Li, Geng, Peng, Meng, Lu, Molecular immune pathogenesis and diagnosis of COVID-19, J Pharm Anal
Lotfi, Rezaei, SARS-CoV-2: a comprehensive review from pathogenicity of the virus to clinical consequences, J Med Virol
Mahase, Covid-19: Pfizer's paxlovid is 89% effective in patients at risk of serious illness, company reports, BMJ
Martines, Ritter, Matkovic, Gary, Bollweg, Pathology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 associated with fatal coronavirus disease, United States, Emerg Infect Dis
Molina, Seow, Heng, Chong, Ho, Outcomes of direct and indirect medical intensive care unit admissions from the emergency department of an acute care hospital: a retrospective cohort study, BMJ Open
Monk, Marsden, Tear, Brookes, Batten, Safety and efficacy of inhaled nebulised interferon beta-1a (SNG001) for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, Lancet Resp Med
Mosaddeghi, Shahabinezhad, Dehghani, Farahmandnejad, Taghipour et al., Therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 based on the interferon-mediated immune responses, Curr Signal Transduct Ther
Nasir, Perveen, Murshed, Nazneen, Talha, Survival and biomarkers of COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir and favipiravir in ICU during the peak of pandemic: a single center study in Bangladesh, JPRI
Negahdaripour, Post-COVID-19 hyperglycemia: a concern in selection of therapeutic regimens, Iran J Med Sci
Negahdaripour, The rise and fall in therapeutic candidates for COVID-19, Iran J Med Sci
Owji, Negahdaripour, Hajighahramani, Immunotherapeutic approaches to curtail COVID-19, Int Immunopharmacol
Parashkouhi, Mosaddeghi, Bagheri, Moezzi, Hoseini, The dual sides of interferon induction in COVID-19 treatment, Trend Pharm Sci
Park, Iwasaki, Type I and Type III interferons-induction, signaling, evasion, and application to combat COVID-19, Cell Host Microbe
Perlman, Another decade, another coronavirus, N Eng J Med
Sanchez-Felipe, Vercruysse, Sharma, Ma, Lemmens, A single-dose live-attenuated YF17D-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, Nature
Sepandi, Taghdir, Alimohamadi, Afrashteh, Hosamirudsari, Factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Iran J Public Health
Shen, Yang, Zhao, Jiang, Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts' consensus statement, W J Pediatr
Singh, COVID-19 and its impact on society, Electron Res J Soc Sci
Singh, Chugh, Khera, Chugh, Efficacy and safety of remdesivir in COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMJ Open
Spinner, Gottlieb, Criner, Arribaslo ´pez Jr, Cattelan, Effect of remdesivir vs standard care on clinical status at 11 days in patients with moderate COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial, JAMA
Srinivas, Sacha, Koval, Antivirals for COVID-19, Cleve Clin J Med, doi:10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc030
V'kovski, Kratzel, Steiner, Stalder, Thiel, Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2, Nat Rev Microbiol
Walmsley, Bernstein, King, Arribas, Beall, Lopinavir-ritonavir versus nelfinavir for the initial treatment of HIV infection, N Eng J Med
Wise, Covid-19: remdesivir is recommended for authorisation by European Medicines Agency
Yamamura, Matsuura, Nakagawa, Fukuoka, Domi, Effect of favipiravir and an anti-inflammatory strategy for COVID-19, Crit Care
Zhang, Lu, Wang, Jia, Li, Do underlying cardiovascular diseases have any impact on hospitalised patients with COVID-19?, Heart
Zhou, Chen, Shannon, Wei, Xiang, Interferon-a2b treatment for COVID-19, Front Immunol, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.01061
{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-09-16T06:14:06Z', 'timestamp': 1663308846727}, 'reference-count': 44, 'publisher': 'Springer Science and Business Media LLC', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]], 'date-time': '2022-09-15T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1663200000000}, 'content-version': 'tdm', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}, { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]], 'date-time': '2022-09-15T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1663200000000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://www.springer.com/tdm'}], 'funder': [ { 'DOI': '10.13039/501100013041', 'name': 'Vice-Chancellor for Research, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'award': ['22409']}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['link.springer.com'], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'DOI': '10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]], 'date-time': '2022-09-15T14:27:56Z', 'timestamp': 1663252076000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/springer_crossmark_policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Evaluation of the Costs and Outcomes of COVID-19 Therapeutic Regimens in Hospitalized Patients ' 'in Shiraz', 'prefix': '10.1007', 'author': [ {'given': 'Hooman', 'family': 'Behboodikhah', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Eslam', 'family': 'Shorafa', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Iman', 'family': 'Karimzadeh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Mohsen', 'family': 'Moghadami', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Javad', 'family': 'Shahmohammadi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Mohsen', 'family': 'Bayati', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Khosro', 'family': 'Keshavarz', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4265-1499', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Manica', 'family': 'Negahdaripour', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '297', 'published-online': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]]}, 'reference': [ { 'key': '1351_CR1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '106272', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.cct.2021.106272', 'volume': '101', 'author': 'ABA Al-Abdouh', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Al-Abdouh ABA, Barbarawi M, Jabri A, Kumar A, Fashanu OE et al (2021) ' 'Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Contemp Clin Trials ' '101:106272', 'journal-title': 'Contemp Clin Trials'}, { 'key': '1351_CR2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '107245', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107245', 'volume': '91', 'author': 'A Bagheri', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Bagheri A, Moezzi SMI, Mosaddeghi P et al (2021) Interferon-inducer ' 'antivirals: potential candidates to combat COVID-19. Int Immunopharmacol ' '91:107245', 'journal-title': 'Int Immunopharmacol'}, { 'issue': '6', 'key': '1351_CR3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '927', 'DOI': '10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00426', 'volume': '39', 'author': 'SM Bartsch', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Bartsch SM, Ferguson MC, McKinnell JA, O’Shea KJ, Wedlock PT (2020) The ' 'potential health care costs and resource use associated with COVID-19 in ' 'the United States. Health Aff 39(6):927–935', 'journal-title': 'Health Aff'}, { 'issue': '19', 'key': '1351_CR4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1813', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2007764', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'JH Beigel', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, Mehta AK, Zingman BS, Kalil AC et al ' '(2020) Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19—final report. New Eng J ' 'Med 383(19):1813–1826', 'journal-title': 'New Eng J Med'}, { 'issue': '10', 'key': '1351_CR5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1192', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eng.2020.03.007', 'volume': '6', 'author': 'Q Cai', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Cai Q, Yang M, Liu D, Chen J, Shu D et al (2020) Experimental treatment ' 'with favipiravir for COVID-19: an open-label control study. Engineering ' '6(10):1192–1198', 'journal-title': 'Engineering'}, { 'issue': '19', 'key': '1351_CR6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1787', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2001282', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'B Cao', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J et al (2020) A trial of ' 'Lopinavir-Ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. New Eng ' 'J Med 382(19):1787–1799', 'journal-title': 'New Eng J Med'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': '1351_CR7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1788', 'DOI': '10.1093/gerona/glaa089', 'volume': '75', 'author': 'T Chen', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Chen T, Dai Z, Mo P, Li X, Ma Z et al (2020) Clinical characteristics ' 'and outcomes of older patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ' 'in Wuhan, China: a single-centered. Retrosp Study J Gerontol: Series A ' '75(9):1788–1795', 'journal-title': 'Retrosp Study J Gerontol: Series A'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '1351_CR8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1409', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jval.2020.07.002', 'volume': '23', 'author': 'DM Dawoud', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Dawoud DM, Soliman KY (2020) Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments ' 'for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including ' 'COVID-19: a systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value ' 'Health 23(11):1409–1422', 'journal-title': 'Value Health'}, { 'key': '1351_CR9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1195', 'DOI': '10.1080/13543784.2020.1821645', 'volume': '29', 'author': 'SA Doggrell', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Doggrell SA (2020) Remdesivir, a remedy or a ripple in severe COVID-19? ' 'Expert Opin Investig Drugs 29:1195–1198', 'journal-title': 'Expert Opin Investig Drugs'}, { 'key': '1351_CR10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100794', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.drup.2021.100794', 'volume': '59', 'author': 'S Drożdżal', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Drożdżal S, Rosik J, Lechowicz K, Machaj F, Szostak B, Przybyciński J et ' 'al (2021) An update on drugs with therapeutic potential for SARS-CoV-2 ' '(COVID-19) treatment. Drug Resist Updat 59:100794', 'journal-title': 'Drug Resist Updat'}, { 'key': '1351_CR11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '335', 'DOI': '10.3390/vaccines8020335', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'HA Elshabrawy', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Elshabrawy HA (2020) SARS-CoV-2: an update on potential antivirals in ' 'light of SARS-CoV antiviral drug discoveries. Vaccines 8:335', 'journal-title': 'Vaccines'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1351_CR12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '132', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12913-021-06126-8', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'M GhaffariDarab', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'GhaffariDarab M, Keshavarz K, Sadeghi E, Shahmohamadi J, Kavosi Z (2021) ' 'The economic burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): evidence ' 'from Iran. BMC Health Serv Res 21(1):132', 'journal-title': 'BMC Health Serv Res'}, { 'issue': '24', 'key': '1351_CR13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2327', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2007016', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'J Grein', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Grein J, Ohmagari N, Shin D, Diaz G, Asperges E et al (2020) ' 'Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. N Eng ' 'J Med 382(24):2327–2336', 'journal-title': 'N Eng J Med'}, { 'issue': '5', 'key': '1351_CR14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2000547', 'DOI': '10.1183/13993003.00547-2020', 'volume': '55', 'author': 'WJ Guan', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Guan WJ, Liang WH, Zhao Y, Liang HR, Chen ZS et al (2020) Comorbidity ' 'and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide ' 'analysis. Eur Res J 55(5):2000547', 'journal-title': 'Eur Res J'}, { 'key': '1351_CR15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112517', 'volume': '146', 'author': 'SMR Hashemian', 'year': '2022', 'unstructured': 'Hashemian SMR, Pourhanifeh MH, Hamblin MR, Shahrzad MK, Mirzaei H (2022) ' 'Rd inhibitors and COVID-19: Is molnupiravir a good option? Biomed ' 'Pharmacother 146:112517', 'journal-title': 'Biomed Pharmacother'}, { 'key': '1351_CR16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'Y Jo', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Jo Y, Jamieson L, Edoka I, Long L, Silal S et al (2021) ' 'Cost-effectiveness of remdesivir and dexamethasone for COVID-19 ' 'treatment in South Africa. Open Forum Inf Diss. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab040', 'journal-title': 'Open Forum Inf Diss', 'DOI': '10.1093/ofid/ofab040'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': '1351_CR17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '102', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jpha.2020.03.001', 'volume': '10', 'author': 'X Li', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Li X, Geng M, Peng Y, Meng L, Lu S (2020) Molecular immune pathogenesis ' 'and diagnosis of COVID-19. J Pharm Anal 10(2):102–108', 'journal-title': 'J Pharm Anal'}, { 'key': '1351_CR18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1864', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.26123', 'volume': '92', 'author': 'M Lotfi', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Lotfi M, Rezaei N (2020) SARS-CoV-2: a comprehensive review from ' 'pathogenicity of the virus to clinical consequences. J Med Virol ' '92:1864–1874', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol'}, { 'key': '1351_CR19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'n2713', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n2713', 'volume': '375', 'author': 'E Mahase', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Mahase E (2021) Covid-19: Pfizer’s paxlovid is 89% effective in patients ' 'at risk of serious illness, company reports. BMJ 375:n2713', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '1351_CR20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2005', 'DOI': '10.3201/eid2609.202095', 'volume': '26', 'author': 'RB Martines', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Martines RB, Ritter JM, Matkovic E, Gary J, Bollweg BC et al (2020) ' 'Pathology and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 associated with fatal ' 'coronavirus disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 26:2005–2015', 'journal-title': 'Emerg Infect Dis'}, { 'key': '1351_CR21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e005553', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005553', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'JAD Molina', 'year': '2014', 'unstructured': 'Molina JAD, Seow E, Heng BH, Chong WF, Ho B (2014) Outcomes of direct ' 'and indirect medical intensive care unit admissions from the emergency ' 'department of an acute care hospital: a retrospective cohort study. BMJ ' 'Open 4:e005553', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Open'}, { 'key': '1351_CR22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '196', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30511-7', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'PD Monk', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Monk PD, Marsden RJ, Tear VJ, Brookes J, Batten TN et al (2021) Safety ' 'and efficacy of inhaled nebulised interferon beta-1a (SNG001) for ' 'treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a randomised, double-blind, ' 'placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet Resp Med 9:196–206', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Resp Med'}, { 'key': '1351_CR23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.2174/1574362416666210120104636', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'P Mosaddeghi', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Mosaddeghi P, Shahabinezhad F, Dehghani Z, Farahmandnejad M, Taghipour ' 'MJ, Moghadami M, Nezafat N, Masoompour SM, Negahdaripour M (2021) ' 'Therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 based on the interferon-mediated ' 'immune responses. Curr Signal Transduct Ther 16:1', 'journal-title': 'Curr Signal Transduct Ther'}, { 'issue': '45', 'key': '1351_CR25', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '14', 'DOI': '10.9734/jpri/2020/v32i4531088', 'volume': '32', 'author': 'M Nasir', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Nasir M, Perveen RA, Murshed M, Nazneen R, Talha KA (2021) Survival and ' 'biomarkers of COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir and favipiravir ' 'in ICU during the peak of pandemic: a single center study in Bangladesh. ' 'JPRI 32(45):14–22', 'journal-title': 'JPRI'}, { 'key': '1351_CR26', 'first-page': '231', 'volume': '45', 'author': 'M Negahdaripour', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Negahdaripour M (2020) The rise and fall in therapeutic candidates for ' 'COVID-19. Iran J Med Sci 45:231–232', 'journal-title': 'Iran J Med Sci'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': '1351_CR27', 'first-page': '235', 'volume': '46', 'author': 'M Negahdaripour', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Negahdaripour M (2021) Post-COVID-19 hyperglycemia: a concern in ' 'selection of therapeutic regimens. Iran J Med Sci 46(4):235–236', 'journal-title': 'Iran J Med Sci'}, { 'key': '1351_CR28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '106924', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106924', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'H Owji', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Owji H, Negahdaripour M, Hajighahramani N (2020) Immunotherapeutic ' 'approaches to curtail COVID-19. Int Immunopharmacol 88:106924', 'journal-title': 'Int Immunopharmacol'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1351_CR24', 'first-page': '9', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'SN Parashkouhi', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Parashkouhi SN, Mosaddeghi P, Bagheri A, Moezzi SMI, Hoseini SMF et al ' '(2021) The dual sides of interferon induction in COVID-19 treatment. ' 'Trend Pharm Sci 7(1):9–14', 'journal-title': 'Trend Pharm Sci'}, { 'key': '1351_CR29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '870', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chom.2020.05.008', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'A Park', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Park A, Iwasaki A (2020) Type I and Type III interferons–induction, ' 'signaling, evasion, and application to combat COVID-19. Cell Host ' 'Microbe 27:870–878', 'journal-title': 'Cell Host Microbe'}, { 'key': '1351_CR30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '760', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMe2001126', 'volume': '382', 'author': 'S Perlman', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Perlman S (2020) Another decade, another coronavirus. N Eng J Med ' '382:760–762', 'journal-title': 'N Eng J Med'}, { 'key': '1351_CR31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '320', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41586-020-3035-9', 'volume': '590', 'author': 'L Sanchez-Felipe', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Sanchez-Felipe L, Vercruysse T, Sharma S, Ma J, Lemmens V et al (2020) A ' 'single-dose live-attenuated YF17D-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. ' 'Nature 590:320–325', 'journal-title': 'Nature'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': '1351_CR32', 'first-page': '1211', 'volume': '49', 'author': 'M Sepandi', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Sepandi M, Taghdir M, Alimohamadi Y, Afrashteh S, Hosamirudsari H (2020) ' 'Factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients: a systematic ' 'review and meta-analysis. Iran J Public Health 49(7):1211–1221', 'journal-title': 'Iran J Public Health'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '1351_CR33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '223', 'DOI': '10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7', 'volume': '16', 'author': 'K Shen', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Shen K, Yang Y, Wang T, Zhao D, Jiang Y et al (2020) Diagnosis, ' 'treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in ' 'children: experts’ consensus statement. W J Pediatr 16(3):223–231', 'journal-title': 'W J Pediatr'}, { 'key': '1351_CR34', 'unstructured': 'Singh J (2020) COVID-19 and its impact on society. Electron Res J Soc ' 'Sci. 2(I) Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3567837'}, { 'key': '1351_CR35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e048416', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048416', 'volume': '11', 'author': 'SKD Singh', 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'Singh SKD, Chugh A, Khera PS, Chugh VK (2021) Efficacy and safety of ' 'remdesivir in COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis. BMJ Open 11:e048416', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Open'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': '1351_CR36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1048', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2020.16349', 'volume': '324', 'author': 'CD Spinner', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Spinner CD, Gottlieb RL, Criner GJ, ArribasLópez JR, Cattelan AM et al ' '(2020) Effect of remdesivir vs standard care on clinical status at 11 ' 'days in patients with moderate COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. ' 'JAMA 324(11):1048–1057', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'key': '1351_CR37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'P Srinivas', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Srinivas P, Sacha GL, Koval C (2020) Antivirals for COVID-19. Cleve Clin ' 'J Med. https://doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc030', 'journal-title': 'Cleve Clin J Med', 'DOI': '10.3949/ccjm.87a.ccc030'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': '1351_CR38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '155', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41579-020-00468-6', 'volume': '19', 'author': "P V'Kovski", 'year': '2021', 'unstructured': 'V’Kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V (2021) Coronavirus ' 'biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol ' '19(3):155–170', 'journal-title': 'Nat Rev Microbiol'}, { 'key': '1351_CR39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2039', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa012354', 'volume': '346', 'author': 'S Walmsley', 'year': '2002', 'unstructured': 'Walmsley S, Bernstein B, King M, Arribas J, Beall G et al (2002) ' 'Lopinavir-ritonavir versus nelfinavir for the initial treatment of HIV ' 'infection. N Eng J Med 346:2039–2046', 'journal-title': 'N Eng J Med'}, { 'key': '1351_CR40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'm2610', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m2610', 'volume': '369', 'author': 'J Wise', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Wise J (2020) Covid-19: remdesivir is recommended for authorisation by ' 'European Medicines Agency. BMJ 369:m2610', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': '1351_CR41', 'unstructured': 'World Bank (2020) PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $) - ' 'Iran, Islamic Rep. Available at ' 'https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/PA.NUS.PPP?locations=IR, Accessed ' 'at 22 May 2020'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': '1351_CR42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '413', 'DOI': '10.1186/s13054-020-03137-5', 'volume': '24', 'author': 'H Yamamura', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Yamamura H, Matsuura H, Nakagawa J, Fukuoka H, Domi H et al (2020) ' 'Effect of favipiravir and an anti-inflammatory strategy for COVID-19. ' 'Crit Care 24(1):413', 'journal-title': 'Crit Care'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': '1351_CR44', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1148', 'DOI': '10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316909', 'volume': '106', 'author': 'J Zhang', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhang J, Lu S, Wang X, Jia X, Li J et al (2020) Do underlying ' 'cardiovascular diseases have any impact on hospitalised patients with ' 'COVID-19? Heart 106(15):1148', 'journal-title': 'Heart'}, { 'key': '1351_CR45', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'author': 'Q Zhou', 'year': '2020', 'unstructured': 'Zhou Q, Chen V, Shannon CP, Wei XS, Xiang X et al (2020) Interferon-α2b ' 'treatment for COVID-19. Front Immunol. ' 'https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01061', 'journal-title': 'Front Immunol', 'DOI': '10.3389/fimmu.2020.01061'}], 'container-title': 'Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0/fulltext.html', 'content-type': 'text/html', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'text-mining'}, { 'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0.pdf', 'content-type': 'application/pdf', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]], 'date-time': '2022-09-15T17:42:53Z', 'timestamp': 1663263773000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]]}, 'references-count': 44, 'alternative-id': ['1351'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40995-022-01351-0', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['1028-6276', '2364-1819'], 'subject': [ 'General Physics and Astronomy', 'General Mathematics', 'General Earth and Planetary Sciences', 'General Agricultural and Biological Sciences', 'General Chemistry'], 'container-title-short': 'Iran J Sci Technol Trans Sci', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 9, 15]]}, 'assertion': [ { 'value': '18 April 2022', 'order': 1, 'name': 'received', 'label': 'Received', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '20 August 2022', 'order': 2, 'name': 'accepted', 'label': 'Accepted', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, { 'value': '15 September 2022', 'order': 3, 'name': 'first_online', 'label': 'First Online', 'group': {'name': 'ArticleHistory', 'label': 'Article History'}}, {'order': 1, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Declarations'}}, { 'value': 'The authors declare no competing interests.', 'order': 2, 'name': 'Ethics', 'group': {'name': 'EthicsHeading', 'label': 'Conflict of Interest'}}, { 'value': 'This content has been made available to all.', 'name': 'free', 'label': 'Free to read'}]}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit