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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality -12% Improvement Relative Risk Ventilation 43% ICU admission 44% Hospitalization time 12% Vitamin D  Arroyo-Díaz et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with vitamin D beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 1,267 patients in Spain Lower ICU admission with vitamin D (p=0.035) c19early.org Arroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Publi.., Sep 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional Study

Arroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347
Sep 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 120 studies, recognized in 8 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,200+ studies for 70+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 1,267 hospitalized patients in Spain, 189 on vitamin D supplementation before admission, showing lower ICU admission with supplementation, and no statistically significant difference for mortality or ventilation.
This is the 54th of 120 COVID-19 controlled studies for vitamin D, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 248 sextillion).
29 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000024.
risk of death, 12.4% higher, RR 1.12, p = 0.59, treatment 50 of 189 (26.5%), control 167 of 1,078 (15.5%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 43.3% lower, RR 0.57, p = 0.22, treatment 11 of 189 (5.8%), control 113 of 1,078 (10.5%), NNT 21, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk.
risk of ICU admission, 44.2% lower, RR 0.56, p = 0.03, treatment 13 of 189 (6.9%), control 133 of 1,078 (12.3%), NNT 18, unadjusted.
hospitalization time, 11.8% lower, relative time 0.88, p = 0.20, treatment 189, control 1,078, unadjusted.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Arroyo-Díaz et al., 24 Sep 2021, retrospective, Spain, peer-reviewed, 11 authors, dosage not specified.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional Study
Juan Antonio Arroyo-Díaz, Josep Julve, Bogdan Vlacho, Rosa Corcoy, Paola Ponte, Eva Román, Elena Navas-Méndez, Gemma Llauradó, Josep Franch-Nadal, Pere Domingo, Didac Mauricio
Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347
Aim: The study aim was to assess the association of vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and severe outcomes in subjects admitted for COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pseudonymised medical record data from subjects admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain) for COVID-19 during March and April 2020. The composite primary study outcome was defined as death and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Association between risk factors and study outcomes was evaluated by bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1,267 persons were hospitalised during the observation period. Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): 1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81). Arroyo-Díaz et al. Vitamin D Supplementation and Severity of COVID19 Conclusion: We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. The age and the burden of age-associated comorbidities were independently associated with the in-hospital events.
DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT The data analysed in this study is subject to the following licences/restrictions: The data controller for Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau does not allow the sharing of raw data. Requests to access these datasets should be directed to Pere Domingo, pdomingo@santpau.cat. ETHICS STATEMENT The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Re. Nr. HSCSP-20/117). Written informed consent for participation was not required for this study in accordance with the national legislation and the institutional requirements. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS JA-D, JJ, JF-N, PD, and DM: conceptualisation. EN-M: formal analysis. JA-D, DM, PD, ER, and PP: resources and data curation. BV: writing-original draught preparation. BV, RC, JA-D, GL, JF-N, PD, and DM: writing-review and editing. DM and JF-N: supervision. JA-D: project administration. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh. 2021.758347/full#supplementary-material Conflict of Interest: RC has received advisory and/or speaking fees from Abbott, Ascensia, Lilly, MSD, Novo and Sanofi. JF-N has received advisory and or speaking fees from Astra-Zeneca, Ascensia, Boehringer Ingelheim, GSK, Lilly, MSD, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi; they received..
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Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active ' 'vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group ' 'were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher ' 'rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of ' 'vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, ' 'previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): ' '1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association ' 'disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81).</jats:p><jats:p><jats:bold>Conclusion:</jats:bold> ' 'We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission ' 'and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. 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Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of ' 'COVID-19 infection in US Black women', 'author': 'Cozier', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e0255132', 'journal-title': 'PLoS ONE.', 'key': 'B12', 'volume': '16', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117', 'article-title': 'Association of vitamin D levels, race/ethnicity, and clinical ' 'characteristics with COVID-19 test results', 'author': 'Meltzer', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'JAMA Netw Open.', 'key': 'B13', 'volume': '4', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100967', 'article-title': 'Influence of 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol levels on SARS-CoV-2 infection ' 'and COVID-19 severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Crafa', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100967', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine.', 'key': 'B14', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154753', 'article-title': 'The link between COVID-19 and VItamin D (VIVID): a systematic review ' 'and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Bassatne', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '154753', 'journal-title': 'Metabolism.', 'key': 'B15', 'volume': '119', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0', 'article-title': 'Impact of serum 25(OH) vitamin D level on mortality in patients with ' 'COVID-19 in Turkey', 'author': 'Karahan', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '189', 'journal-title': 'J Nutr Health Aging', 'key': 'B16', 'volume': '25', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1210/clinem/dgaa733', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D status in hospitalized subjects with SARS-CoV-2 infection', 'author': 'Hernández', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e1343', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Endocrinol Metab.', 'key': 'B17', 'volume': '106', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu12092757', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D deficiency and outcome of COVID-19 subjects', 'author': 'Radujkovic', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2757', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients.', 'key': 'B18', 'volume': '12', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.20960/nh.03193', 'article-title': 'Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 ' 'infection', 'author': 'Macaya', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1039', 'journal-title': 'Nutr Hosp', 'key': 'B19', 'volume': '37', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1093/advances/nmab012.', 'article-title': 'Association of vitamin D status with SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 ' 'severity: a systematic review and meta-analysis', 'author': 'Kazemi', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'journal-title': 'Adv Nutr', 'key': 'B20', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 subjects: a quasi-experimental study', 'author': 'Annweiler', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '105771', 'journal-title': 'J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol', 'key': 'B21', 'volume': '204', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41598-021-86676-3', 'article-title': 'PaO2/FiO2 and IL-6 are risk factors of mortality for intensive care ' 'COVID-19 subjects', 'author': 'Gu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'journal-title': 'Sci Rep.', 'key': 'B22', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1038/s41366-021-00872-9', 'article-title': 'Obesity and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ' 'respiratory failure', 'author': 'Dana', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2028', 'journal-title': 'Int J Obes', 'key': 'B23', 'volume': '45', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043737', 'article-title': 'Association between vitamin D supplementation or serum vitamin D level ' 'and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 including ' 'clinical course, morbidity and mortality outcomes? A systematic review', 'author': 'Grove', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e043737', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Open.', 'key': 'B24', 'volume': '11', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.3390/nu13041339', 'article-title': 'Relation between vitamin D and covid-19 in aged people: a systematic ' 'review', 'author': 'Dramé', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1339', 'journal-title': 'Nutrients.', 'key': 'B25', 'volume': '13', 'year': '2021'}, { 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.m1327', 'article-title': 'Covid-19: death rate is 0.66% and increases with age, study estimates', 'author': 'Mahase', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'm1327', 'journal-title': 'BMJ.', 'key': 'B26', 'volume': '369', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30243-7', 'article-title': 'Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based ' 'analysis', 'author': 'Verity', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '669', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis.', 'key': 'B27', 'volume': '20', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1183/13993003.01112-2020', 'article-title': 'Association between age and clinical characteristics and outcomes of ' 'COVID-19', 'author': 'Liu', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2001112', 'journal-title': 'Eur Respir J.', 'key': 'B28', 'volume': '55', 'year': '2020'}, { 'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD015043', 'article-title': 'Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: a living ' 'systematic review. 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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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