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Association between dietary antioxidant quality score and severity of coronavirus infection: a case–control study

Aghajani et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1174113
Jul 2023  
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Case control study of 295 COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severe cases with higher dietary antioxidant quality scores, and with higher intake of vitamin D.
This study includes vitamin D and diet.
Aghajani et al., 6 Jul 2023, retrospective, Iran, peer-reviewed, 4 authors, study period April 2022 - August 2022.
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Association between dietary antioxidant quality score and severity of coronavirus infection: a case–control study
Mobina Aghajani, Alexei Wong, Mehdi Azimi, Shadmehr Mirdar Harijani
Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2023.1174113
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the dietary antioxidant quality score (DAQS) and the severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 . The present case-control study was carried out on 295 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 (≥18 years old), including 104 critical patients (Intensive care unit [ICU] admission) and 191 COVID-19 patients without severe complications (Non-intensive care unit [Non-ICU] patients) as cases. Dietary intake was assessed by a 147-item, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Logistic regression was performed to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the considered risk factors. Our outcomes (after multivariate adjustment) suggested that higher adherence to DAQS was significantly associated with a decreased risk of COVID-19 infection severity (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04-0.29, p < 0.001). Similar results were seen when analyzed by sex [men (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.002-0.15, p < 0.001) and women (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.68, p = 0.012)]. A significant association between vitamin D3 intake and decreased risk of COVID-19 severity (OR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.89-0.94, p < 0.001) was also observed. Moreover, multivariate results revealed that there were no significant associations between vitamin C (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.99-1.00, p = 0.067), vitamin E (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.86-1.11, p = 0.798), zinc (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86-1.20, p = 0.805), and selenium (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.99-1.00, p = 0.077) intakes with the risk of COVID-19 severity. However, subgroup analyses by sex suggested a significant association between vitamin C intake and the risk of COVID-19 infection severity in women (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 1.00-1.00, p = 0.028). Our findings showed a negative association between DAQS adherence and the risk of COVID-19 infection severity. Our results may be used to develop potential dietary therapies to decrease COVID-19 severity.
Ethics statement All participants signed an informed consent prior to partaking in this research. This work was approved by the local ethics committee of Mazandaran University (Ethic ID: IR.UMZ.REC.1401.001) and performed according to the Declaration of Helsinki. The patients/ participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. Author contributions MoA and SH: concept and design, acquisition, analysis, interpretation of data, and statistical analysis. MoA, AW, MeA, and SH: drafting of the manuscript. SH: supervision. All authors contributed to critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, and read and approved the final manuscript. Conflict of interest The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's note All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Supplementary material The Supplementary material for this article can be found online at: full#supplementary-material
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