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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Case 50% Improvement Relative Risk Vitamin D for COVID-19  Ribeiro et al.  Sufficiency Are vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 outcomes? Retrospective study in Brazil Fewer cases with higher vitamin D levels (p=0.015) c19early.org Ribeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, Aug 2021 Favors vitamin D Favors control

Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection

Ribeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003
Aug 2021  
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Vitamin D for COVID-19
8th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 119 studies, recognized in 7 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,900+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Retrospective 1,634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, showing vitamin D levels <30ng/mL associated with greater odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test in patients older than 49 years.
This is the 85th of 192 COVID-19 sufficiency studies for vitamin D, which collectively show higher levels reduce risk with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 611 vigintillion).
risk of case, 50.5% lower, OR 0.50, p = 0.01, inverted to make OR<1 favor high D levels, >30ng/mL, multivariate, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Ribeiro et al., 5 Aug 2021, retrospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
This PaperVitamin DAll
Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Heriks Gomes Ribeiro, Raquel Costa Silva Dantas-Komatsu, Jeane Franco Pires Medeiros, Maria Clara Da Cruz Carvalho, Victor De Lima Soares, Bruna Zavarize Reis, André Ducati Luchessi, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger
Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003
Background: The relationship of vitamin D status and other biochemical parameters with the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains inconclusive, especially in regions with high solar incidence. Therefore, we aimed to associate the 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and lipid profile prior to the SARS-CoV-2 tests in a population from a sunny region in Brazil (5 degrees S, 35 degrees W). Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled 1634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 of a private medical laboratory with 25(OH)D concentration and lipid profile measured ≥ 7 days before the date of the first SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test and were categorized according to 25(OH)D sufficiency (≥30 ng/mL) or insufficiency (<30 ng/mL). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess risk factors associated with positive tests for SARS-CoV-2. Results: Average serum 25(OH)D was 33.6 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was only found in 2.6% of the participants. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that patients > 49 y with insufficient 25(OH)D (<30 ng/mL) presented increased odds to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR: 2.02, 95 %CI: 1.15 to 3.55, P = 0.015). The same is observed among those with total cholesterol > 190 mg/dL (OR: 1.90, 95 %CI: 1.10 to 3.28, P = 0.020). Conclusions: Previous insufficient 25(OH)D (<30 ng/mL) concentration and high total cholesterol were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among adults > 48 y in the study population. Further studies should be conducted to confirm whether measurement of 25(OH)D and lipid profile could be useful to identify patients who are more susceptible to COVID-19.
Author contributions VNS and HGR designed and executed the study; HGR, RCSDK, JFPM, MCCC, and BZR wrote the paper; ADL performed statistical analysis of the data; VLS contributed to the execution of the study; VNS, ADL, and BZR revised the final draft of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Declaration of Competing Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Appendix A. Supplementary data Supplementary data to this article can be found online at https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003.
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