Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Results
Abstract
All exercise studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19early.org COVID-19 treatment researchExerciseExercise (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Hospitalization 27% Improvement Relative Risk Case 9% Exercise  Muñoz-Vergara et al.  Prophylaxis Does physical activity reduce risk for COVID-19? Prospective study of 61,557 patients in the USA Lower hospitalization (p=0.0024) and fewer cases (p=0.0043) c19early.org Muñoz-Vergara et al., JAMA Network Open, Feb 2024 Favors exercise Favors inactivity

Prepandemic Physical Activity and Risk of COVID-19 Diagnosis and Hospitalization in Older Adults

Muñoz-Vergara et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.55808
Feb 2024  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Exercise for COVID-19
9th treatment shown to reduce risk in October 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 66 studies.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19early.org
Prospective study of 61,557 adults aged 45+ years showing reduced risk of COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization for those meeting physical activity guidelines of ≥7.5 MET-hours/week before the pandemic compared to inactive individuals.
risk of hospitalization, 26.7% lower, RR 0.73, p = 0.002, high activity levels 332 of 42,159 (0.8%), low activity levels 203 of 12,405 (1.6%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, sufficiently active vs. inactive, multivariable, model 3.
risk of case, 9.1% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.004, high activity levels 3,898 of 42,159 (9.2%), low activity levels 1,293 of 12,405 (10.4%), NNT 85, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, sufficiently active vs. inactive, multivariable, model 3.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Muñoz-Vergara et al., 13 Feb 2024, prospective, USA, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
This PaperExerciseAll
Prepandemic Physical Activity and Risk of COVID-19 Diagnosis and Hospitalization in Older Adults
DVM, MPH; Dennis Muñoz-Vergara, PhD Peter M Wayne, MS Eunjung Kim, MBBS, ScD ; I-Min Lee, ScD Julie E Buring, MD, DrPH Joann E Manson, ScD, MPH Howard D Sesso, Wayne Muñoz-Vergara, Kim, Buring, Manson, Sesso Lee
doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.55808
IMPORTANCE Higher prepandemic physical activity (PA) levels have been associated with lower risk and severity of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between self-reported prepandemic PA levels and the risk and severity of COVID-19 in older US adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This cohort study combined cohorts from 3 ongoing prospective randomized clinical trials of US adults aged 45 years or older who provided prepandemic self-reports of baseline leisure-time PA and risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes using the most recent questionnaire completed as of December 31, 2019, as the baseline PA assessment. In multiple surveys from May 2020 through May 2022, participants indicated whether they had at least 1 positive COVID-19 test result or were diagnosed with or hospitalized for COVID-19. EXPOSURE Prepandemic PA, categorized into 3 groups by metabolic equivalent hours per week: inactive (0-3.5), insufficiently active (>3.5 to <7.5), and sufficiently active (Ն7.5). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were risk of COVID-19 and hospitalization for COVID-19. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the association of COVID-19 diagnosis and/or hospitalization with each of the 2 upper PA categories vs the lowest PA category. RESULTS The pooled cohort included 61 557 participants (mean [SD] age, 75.7 [6.4] years; 70.7% female), 20.2% of whom were inactive; 11.4%, insufficiently active; and 68.5%, sufficiently active. A total of 5890 confirmed incident cases of COVID-19 were reported through May 2022, including 626 hospitalizations. After controlling for demographics, body mass index, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, and medications used, compared with inactive individuals, those insufficiently active had no significant reduction in infection (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86-1.06) or hospitalization (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.76-1.28), whereas those sufficiently active had a significant reduction in infection (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97) and hospitalization (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.90). In subgroup analyses, the association between PA and SARS-CoV-2 infection differed by sex, with only sufficiently active women having decreased odds (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95; P = .04 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this cohort study of adults aged 45 years or older, those who adhered to PA guidelines before the pandemic had lower odds of developing or being hospitalized for COVID-19. Thus, higher prepandemic PA levels may be associated with reduced odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization for COVID-19.
Author Contributions: Drs Kim and Sesso had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Drs Muñoz-Vergara and Wayne contributed equally to this work. Concept and design: Wayne, Manson, Sesso. Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: All authors. Drafting of the manuscript: Muñoz-Vergara, Wayne, Sesso. Critical review of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors. Statistical analysis: Muñoz-Vergara, Kim. Obtained funding: Wayne, Lee, Sesso. Administrative, technical, or material support: Muñoz-Vergara, Lee, Manson, Sesso. Supervision: Wayne, Manson, Sesso. Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Conflict of Interest Data Sharing Statement: See Supplement 2. Additional Contributions: We thank the COSMOS, VITAL, and WHS study participants and research staff for their tremendous dedication and commitment.
References
Ahmadi, Huang, Inan-Eroglu, Hamer, Stamatakis, Lifestyle risk factors and infectious disease mortality, including COVID-19, among middle aged and older adults: evidence from a community-based cohort study in the United Kingdom, Brain Behav Immun, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2021.04.022
Bergman, Ballin, Nordström, Nordström, Risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, and subsequent all-cause mortality in Sweden: a nationwide study, Eur J Epidemiol, doi:10.1007/s10654-021-00732-w
Bird, Karageorghis, Hamer, Relationships among behavioural regulations, physical activity, and mental health pre-and during COVID-19 UK lockdown, Psychol Sport Exerc, doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.101945
Blanchflower, Bryson, COVID and mental health in America, PLoS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0269855
Brandenburg, Lesser, Thomson, Giles, Does higher self-reported cardiorespiratory fitness reduce the odds of hospitalization from COVID-19?, J Phys Act Health, doi:10.1123/jpah.2020-0817
Braveman, Gottlieb, The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes, Public Health Rep, doi:10.1177/00333549141291S206
Bull, Ss, Biddle, World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour, Br J Sports Med, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955
Bwire, Coronavirus: why men are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than women? SN, Compr Clin Med, doi:10.1007/s42399-020-00341-w
Chastin, Abaraogu, Bourgois, Effects of regular physical activity on the immune system, vaccination and risk of community-acquired infectious disease in the general population: systematic review and meta-analysis, Sports Med, doi:10.1007/s40279-021-01466-1
Cho, Lee, Sy, Physical activity and the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality: a nationwide population-based case-control study, J Clin Med, doi:10.3390/jcm10071539
Curb, Mctiernan, Heckbert, Outcomes ascertainment and adjudication methods in the Women's Health Initiative, Ann Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/S1047-2797(03)00048-6
Cuschieri, The STROBE guidelines, Saudi J Anaesth, doi:10.4103/sja.SJA_543_18
De Souza, Motta-Santos, Soares, Association of physical activity levels and the prevalence of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, J Sci Med Sport, doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2021.05.011
Drummond, Campos, Drummond, Acute and chronic effects of physical exercise on IgA and IgG levels and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Pflugers Arch, doi:10.1007/s00424-022-02760-1
Ekblom-Bak, Väisänen, Ekblom, Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279 455 adults: a case control study, Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, doi:10.1186/s12966-021-01198-5
Epel, The geroscience agenda: toxic stress, hormetic stress, and the rate of aging, Ageing Res Rev, doi:10.1016/j.arr.2020.101167
Ezzatvar, Ramírez-Vélez, Izquierdo, Garcia-Hermoso, Physical activity and risk of infection, severity and mortality of COVID-19: a systematic review and non-linear dose-response meta-analysis of data from 1 853 610 adults, Br J Sports Med, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2022-105733
Francescomarino, Sciartilli, Valerio, Baldassarre, Gallina, The effect of physical exercise on endothelial function, Sports Med, doi:10.2165/11317750-000000000-00000
Gay, Salinas, Buchner, Meeting physical activity guidelines is associated with lower allostatic load and inflammation in Mexican Americans, J Immigr Minor Health, doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9950-1
Gleeson, Bishop, Stensel, Lindley, Mastana et al., The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease, Nat Rev Immunol, doi:10.1038/nri3041
Groeneveld, Ballering, Van Boven, Akkermans, Hartman et al., Sex differences in incidence of respiratory symptoms and management by general practitioners, Fam Pract, doi:10.1093/fampra/cmaa040
Hamer, Kivimäki, Gale, Batty, Lifestyle risk factors, inflammatory mechanisms, and COVID-19 hospitalization: a community-based cohort study of 387 109 adults in UK, Brain Behav Immun, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.059
Hasson, Sallis, Coleman, Kaushal, Nocera et al., COVID-19: implications for physical activity, health disparities, and health equity, Am J Lifestyle Med, doi:10.1177/15598276211029222
Havers, Pham, Taylor, COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among vaccinated and unvaccinated adults 18 years or older in 13 US states, January 2021 to April 2022, JAMA Intern Med, doi:https://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.4299&utm_campaign=articlePDF%26utm_medium=articlePDFlink%26utm_source=articlePDF%26utm_content=jamanetworkopen.2023.55808
Havervall, Marking, Svensson, Anti-spike mucosal IgA protection against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMc2209651
Hoshi, Liu, Luttmann-Gibson, Association of physical activity with bioactive lipids and cardiovascular events, Circ Res, doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.122.320952
Jurado-Fasoli, Di, Sanchez-Delgado, Acute and long-term exercise differently modulate plasma levels of oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and their analogues in young sedentary adults: a sub-study and secondary analyses from the ACTIBATE randomized controlled-trial, EBioMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104313
Klöting, Ristow, Blüher, Effects of exercise on ACE2, Obesity, doi:10.1002/oby.23041
Kunutsor, Seidu, Laukkanen, Physical activity reduces the risk of pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis of 10 prospective studies involving 1 044 492 participants, Geroscience, doi:10.1007/s11357-021-00491-2
Lee, Cook, Manson, Buring, Randomised beta-carotene supplementation and incidence of cancer and cardiovascular disease in women: is the association modified by baseline plasma level?, Br J Cancer, doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600147
Lee, Lee, Moon, Physical activity and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 illness and COVID-19 related mortality in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study, Br J Sports Med, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-104203
Li, Huang, Zou, Epidemiology of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes, J Med Virol, doi:10.1002/jmv.26424
Mandolesi, Polverino, Montuori, Effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and wellbeing: biological and psychological benefits, Front Psychol, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00509
Manson, Bassuk, Lee, The Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, Contemp Clin Trials, doi:10.1016/j.cct.2011.09.009
Manson, Cook, Lee, Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1809944
Mansournia, Etminan, Danaei, Kaufman, Collins, Handling time varying confounding in observational research, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.j4587
Muñoz-Vergara, Burton, Bain, Understanding the dynamics of inflammatory mediators in response to mind-body movement therapies (MBMTs): a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies in healthy subjects, Brain Behav Immun Integr, doi:10.1016/j.bbii.2023.100006
Nieman, Wentz, The compelling link between physical activity and the body's defense system, J Sport Health Sci, doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2018.09.009
Petersen, Pedersen, The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, J Appl Physiol, doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00164.2004
Phillips, Fahimi, Immune and neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain in depression, Front Neurosci, doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00498
Rexrode, Lee, Cook, Hennekens, Buring, Baseline characteristics of participants in the Women's Health Study, J Womens Health Gend Based Med, doi:10.1089/152460900318911
Ridker, Buring, Cook, Rifai, C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women, Circulation, doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000055014.62083.05
Rist, Sesso, Johnson, Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS), Contemp Clin Trials, doi:10.1016/j.cct.2022.106728
Rossi, Cena, Binala, Alessi, Scotti et al., Evaluation of the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization in vaccinated and previously infected subjects based on real world data, Sci Rep, doi:10.1038/s41598-023-28129-7
Rowlands, Dempsey, Gillies, Association between accelerometer-assessed physical activity and severity of COVID-19 in UK Biobank, Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes, doi:10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2021.08.011
Saint-Maurice, Graubard, Troiano, Estimated number of deaths prevented through increased physical activity among US adults, JAMA Intern Med, doi:https://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jamainternmed.2021.7755&utm_campaign=articlePDF%26utm_medium=articlePDFlink%26utm_source=articlePDF%26utm_content=jamanetworkopen.2023.55808
Sallis, Young, Tartof, Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: a study in 48 440 adult patients, Br J Sports Med, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080
Sesso, Manson, Aragaki, Effect of cocoa flavanol supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease events: the Cocoa Supplement and Multivitamin Outcomes Study (COSMOS) randomized clinical trial, Am J Clin Nutr, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac055
Wilke, Mohr, Tenforde, A pandemic within the pandemic? physical activity levels substantially decreased in countries affected by COVID-19, Int J Environ Res Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18052235
Xu, Ilyas, Weng, Endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19: an overview of evidence, biomarkers, mechanisms and potential therapies, Acta Pharmacol Sin, doi:10.1038/s41401-022-00998-0
Young, Sallis, Baecker, Associations of physical inactivity and COVID-19 outcomes among subgroups, Am J Prev Med, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2022.10.007
Zhang, Li, Sun, Physical activity and COVID-19: an observational and Mendelian randomisation study, J Glob Health, doi:10.7189/jogh.10.020514
Zhao, Veeranki, Magnussen, Xi, Recommended physical activity and all cause and cause specific mortality in US adults: prospective cohort study, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.m2031
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit